Archive for the ‘Medicine’ Category

DAAD’s 2015/2016 English Master Programs Scholarships for Jordanians (Two are Medicine-Related out of a Toal of 36 Programs)

DAAD Amman Jordanien
This is a copy-paste from a post published today by DAAD Jordan’s facebook page:

DAAD proudly presents its brand new brochure of its next intake for its Master portfolio “Developing-Related Postgraduate Courses”!!!

The funding line comprises 36 English Master programmes at different German universities in the fields Economic Sciences, Development Cooperation, Engineering,Mathematics, Regional Planning, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Public Health, Social Sciences and Media Studies.
All programmes are open for Jordanian applicants and there is full scholarships available.
Note: Applications have to be directed to the respective university and NOT to the DAAD. All information on the programmes can be found here :
Application deadlines differ from programme to programme but most deadlines are between September and October. Good luck with your application!

Source: DAAD’s Jordan Facebook Page,

Notes from me:

# Prerequisites and Requirements for DAAD scholarhships: Are you eligible for a DAAD scholarship?

# There are only two Medicine-related master programs and they are in Public Health. Their full details are on pages 101-108 of the DAAD’s brochure on You can see the embeded Brochure below starting at page 101 (Master of Science in International Health (Berlin)). Alternatively, you can click here to go directly to page 101 on the Scribd website.


Postgraduate Courses 2015-16 by Daad Amman


Review: Medical Writing: A Guide for Clinicians, Educators, and Researchers

Medical Writing: A Guide for Clinicians, Educators, and Researchers Medical Writing: A Guide for Clinicians, Educators, and Researchers by Robert B. Taylor My rating: 4 of 5 stars




What I most like:
• I did not know that medical writing is also a problem for native speakers. This book quickly gave me this conclusion. In addition, I now know that medical writing is a long process and one need a lot of time and effort to master it. Therefore, it is no wonder, as a non-native English speaker, that I am having problems in writing my first papers. Finally, I also concluded that writing a manuscript could not be finished in few days and by one person (I am not to be blamed then!).
• The book mentions real life examples from published papers. I wished they were more.
• The book have tables that summarize information regarding certain topics. For examples, “The origins of selected medical words,” p. 54. In addition, some common mistakes and corrections. 
• I like the author’s enthusiasm about the Etymology of words. I am a big enthusiast too. I think this is reflected in how detailed the author supports his points of view.

What I most dislike:
• I found many words and expressions in this book very hard to understand. I had to use the dictionary a lot. I would not say that I read a lot in English since years and think my English is good. This is very subjective. In comparison with “English for Writing Research Papers,” by Adrian Wallwork (…), I used the dictionary to look up new words at least 10 times more. I think this is ironic as the author warns against using hard words and expression. Moreover, I think that the greatest majority of those interested to read a book on medical writing would be people with English as their second language. Would it not be a good idea to use simple and commoner words? Examples of hard words include:

– “… Take ear infection, example, which most would describe as a mundane topic…”, p. 13.==> What does mundane means? One of the nice methods advocated by the author is to use the Microsoft Word Thesaurus. I have Microsoft 2010 and it gave me the following suggestions: “Ordinary, dull, routine, every day, commonplace,… among others.” Is not one or two of these words beautiful substitutes?
– “The review article is the Rodney Dangerfield of medical writing. Review articles get no respect, even though, as discussed in Chap. 5, they are often indexed and counted in calculating a journal’s Impact Factor…” To be like Rodney Dongerfiled? I do not have time to look who this person is and what it is supposed to mean if something is like him. This kind of expressions and hard words delayed my reading speed.
– “I think that highest accolades go to those case reports that change what we do in practice. p. 162” Accolades? 

• The title of the book is a little bit different than the content. Although the title contains “medical writing”, the concentration on writing in the book is little. I think that chapter two mostly address tips on writing. I wish that it was longer and it was more detailed. For example, the tables in it that mention wrong and correct pairs are amazing but unfortunately short. Nonetheless, this is somewhat understood as the book provides an overall view of the whole process of what to from what to do in case you had the idea of a research to getting your writing published. Adrian Wallwork’s English for Writing research papers is deficient in this late point, but without argument, much stronger in teaching writing skills. For this purpose, I highly recommend “English for Writing Research Papers”.

• I think that some technical recommendations needs to be updated. For example, the author dangerously says, ” The disadvantages [of EndNote Program] are cost (currently $299 for the full product) and the steep learning curve facing the new user. The program is not “intuitive” and the online instructions are challenging… EndNote software is great for experienced and prolific medical authors, especially if compiling long lists of citations.” However, in my opinion, beginning medical authors should use my more primitive “cut and paste” method, and spend their energy learning how to be better writers.” I think that the time wasted using the traditional “cut and paste” method in a writer’s first research is enough for him to learn using EndNote. However, I understand that the book was written in 2011 and referencing program might not have been famous back then. Moreover, the author wrote in page 7: “Not too many years ago, I was highly dependent on secretarial support; I dictated my articles and made corrections by hand to be changed on computer by my typist.” Therefore, Dr. Taylor reminds me of some old professors of me at medical school who found some “mundane” tasks in computer to be very hard simply because they started using computers at an old age. Finally, there are now many free professional alternatives to EndNote. The most famous one of them in my opinion is Mendely (

To sum up, the book is amazing because it gives a whole overview of the writing and publication process. However, I find some words and expressions in it very hard to quickly understand. I hope that it would be taken into consideration that many non-Native speakers will read such a book. The strongest advantage of this book is that it gives real-life examples from published papers. I hope that more will be given in future editions. Finally, I hope that more concentration will be given to writing skills. View all my reviews

Doctors of Medicine (MDs) can get directly into a PhD program in Germany “in general”

Three years after graduating from medical school, can a medical doctor have a PhD? In Germany, the answer is “in general” yes. In case a medical doctor is interested in doing a PhD, mainly in basic sciences, then he can directly enter into a PhD program in Germany. I was told that this is the “general rule.” Our certificates, MBBS (Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Surgery), are considered equal to master in Germany. In other words, you do not need to have done a master in order to enter into a PhD program. A German friend of mine told me this information, and I confirmed it in a famous Facebook page about higher studies in Germany (recommended by DAAD officials in Jordan). I asked my question in “German” here. To be 100% sure, they told me to check with individual universities to find if my MD degree from outside Germany is equivalent to master. However, they confirmed that the general rule is that it is equal. I was interested in a program in a University in Berlin called “Humboldt University of Berlin (wikipedia page).” Therefore, I mailed a department in it. For the year 2013/2014, according  to the Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings (Powered by Thompson Reuter), this university is number 94 in the world:

Source: A page for the Humboldt University at the Times World Ranking Website.

For comparison, no Arab university is in the same year among the top 350 Universities in the World, ). The highest being King Abdulazziz university in Saudi Arabia ranking “351-400”.

I sent the following email to a department in this university asking if I can enter directly into a PhD program. They replied that my academic background (which is equal to that of all graduates of Mutah Medical School, and that of all graduates of medical schools in Jordan) makes me qualified to “apply for [their] PhD program.”


Dear Sir or Madam,

I hope that my email will find you doing well. I graduated last June from medical school here in Jordan, Middle East. I have a MBBS (Bacehelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) [Mutah University Graduates has MBBS. Source: The faculty’s page at Mutah Unviersity Website]. A German friend of me told me that in Germany, those with MBBS could directly do PhD. I asked this question in the Facebook group Research in Germany. They answered with yes… I am interested in a program of yours. May I ask if I may apply for it now that I do not have a master degree and only have an MBBS?

Best regards.


Dear Jameel K. Hijazeen,

Thank you for your e-mail and your interest in our program. It is correct that a MBBS is equal to a German Master’s degree. With your academic background you are qualified to apply for our PhD program.

If you have any further questions, you are welcome to send me another e-mail or give me a call.

Best regards,


• As I easily noticed, the language of teaching in most programs is in English (Amazing, huh?). As a proof of your English knowledge, universities require certain TOEFL or IELTS scores.  In one university, they wrote that it is enough if you can provide them with a certificate from a professor who says that you know a good level of English (I cannot remember the precise characteristics of such a professor).

• The requirements for each program are different. The competition is very high in some programs. In particular, one program asked that you pass an exam on Biology and Chemistry. Many details are present in the websites of each program. You can mail them, and from my experience, they reply quickly.

• The tuition fees are very little as universities are supported by the German goverment. In one PhD program, which consists of six semesters, the tuition fees of each semester are 280 euro, which covers free transportation ticket for the entire semester. Concerning living costs, in Berlin, for example, they estimate living costs to be around 1,000 Euro per month. I read and heard about estimated living costs ranging from 700-1200 euro per month. In one study conducted by HSBC bank, it was concluded that among 13 of the world top countries, it is chepeast for overseas students to study in Germany!!! The list of countries is shown in the figure below:

Living costs in 13 of the top world countries: Australia is the most expensive and Germany is the cheapest!

Living costs in 13 of the top world countries: Australia is the most expensive and Germany is the cheapest! Source: Website of HSBC bank.

• You can get sponsorship from different organizations. I know of two. One is called the KAAD. However, the most famous is called the DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst – German Academic Exchange Service). They offer thousands of scholarships every year. They have a central branch of them in Jordan: , ). They hold a free information lecture إستشارة طلابية each month. The lecture is very informative and the explanation is great. It is present by a Dr. Abdelnasser Hindawi. He is very nice, cooperative, and welcomes any questions on the email of DAAD Amman He replies quickly and with full details. The nearest lecture is today, Tuesday, 22.04.2014, at 05:00 PM in Goethe Institute, Amman, You can follow the DAAD Jordan’s facebook page for future lectures. The last 6-8 lectures Ads that I saw stated that the lecture would take place on a Tuesday). The last time I checked, the health-related scholarships they have were two master programs in Public Health. The master programs can be finished in one year. They require however a practical experience of at least two years, among other things. The tuition fees of one program, as I remember, are about 14,000 Euro. They are all covered by the DAAD. For full details of these two programs, and all other scholarships to Jordanians, see this PDF by the DAAD Jordan:

Doing a PhD does not mean that you will continue your life in teaching. This will be very important in your CVs. I know some people who took masters in order to increase their chances of being accepted for residency in the USA. However, some scholarship program will tie candidates with researching about a topic that will help his/her country and with showing “genuine” interest of returning back to his/her country. For example, Yousef Jameel Scholarships:

Humboldt-University is offering five doctoral scholarships with support of the Yousef Jameel Scholarship Fund. Students of Arabic countries, Malaysia and Indonesia are eligible for the scholarships. The scholarships are awarded for a period of three years and commence on October 1. The stipend awarded is in the amount of 1350 Euros per month, plus materials expenses. To be eligible for this scholarship, English and German skills are required. Women and disabled students are encouraged to apply. Applications should be submitted till 15th July 2014.


Yousef Jameel Scholarships at Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany

Yousef Jameel Scholarships at Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany. Source: Link.


Yousef Jameel Scholarships at Humboldt University: Application requirement. Source: PDF file from the university's website. Click here to download it.

Yousef Jameel Scholarships at Humboldt University: Application requirement. Source: PDF file from the university’s website. Click here to download it.

• More scholarships and funding opportunities other than the DAAD and KAAD: Link.

• The DAAD website shows 61 medicine-related PhD programs. I think that this is a large number to choose programs to choose from.

 • How to search the DAAD’s website for a PhD Program (among other study options) and avaialbe funding options for studying in Germany.


• The below PhD positions were posted yesterday by the facebook page “Research in Germany“. They are all in Humboldt-University in Germany:

Source: A post in the website of the facebook page, Research in Germany.

Deutschland: Land der Ideen - Germany: The Land of Ideas

Deutschland: Land der Ideen – Germany: The Land of Ideas. Source: Webseite der Technische Universität München.

*** Note: I based little information above on my own short experience. I tried my best to put references where possible. Please feel free to make any corrections for the benefit of me and future visitors to this page ***

When published papers become like YouTube videos: How comments can revolutionize research – PubMed Commons.

Have you ever used PubMed to search for a paper? Do you know how to tell a bad paper from a good one (i.e. critically appraise a paper)? Are not you sometimes afraid that certain papers contain mistakes? Did medical school equip you with enough skills to critically appraise the literature? Is there anyone to help you? Yes, there is help is since October 2013!

I believe that for most medical graduates in third world countries, where medical research is something rare, the answers to all the above questions is no. Understanding published papers, with their complex statistics and ideas was, and still, hard for me. This is not to mention critically appraising these papers and telling a good paper from a bad one. Did you experience this? Are you still experiencing this?

How can an inexperienced person tell a bad paper from a good one? Be this person a medical student, an inexperienced graduate, or even an experienced doctor who rarely does research. How can a person know the mistakes, which a paper contains? I believe that a good percentage of papers contain mistakes, whether scientific or linguistic, whether by mistake or with aim of fraud. The Abstract of the paper is only there on PubMed or in the Journal website. What is more important, the current system of “letters to the editor” does not seem to be effective. How often did you see such important feedback published? More importantly, do you think that many experienced people will take time to go through this lengthy and boring process of sending a letter to the editor?

When someone suggests a book to you, how do you make sure that it is a good book before going ahead and buying it? I believe that the easiest way is to read reviews or simply comments of people who read it. Very beautiful examples are Amazon, Bookreads, or whatever other website that allows users to publish comments and reviews in the books’ pages. Do not you benefit from reading these comments? Is not this a quick, relatively trustworthy, and incredible method that allows you to know how good a book is?

Comments allow users to decide wether a book is good or not

Source of the screenshot:

3,522 reviews for this famous book

3,522 reviews for this famous book at (link to this page)


In addition, we can consider the case YouTube videos. Do not you enjoy reading some of the comments that are posted under YouTube videos? Have you ever been curious to know how a magic trick was performed, and then you quickly knew what was going on through a comment that explained exactly what was going on? Have you ever not been impressed by a video explaining how to prepare something, and then was persuaded that the video is a piece of trash after reading some of the posted comments? Do not you like the discussions that break out below political or religious videos? Are not they sometimes more informative than the videos themselves?

Comments under a YouTube video featuring democratic candidates debating about the US Health Care System

Source of the screenshot:

Why do not they allow comments, reviews, and subsequent discussions under abstracts of published papers? Is not this a great way to allow inexperienced individuals to assess the quality of published papers? Why not to allow experienced users to expose the defects in published papers? The solution is simple then: Allow comments under published papers Just like Amazon and Goodreads allow comments in each book’s page or like YouTube allows comments under each video. Is not this a small change with great consequences? Did not anyone think of that?

Less than an hour ago, I was searching PubMed when an Ad talked about something called “PubMed Commons.” This was interesting and I immediately googled it. I found a great paper in the website of Stanford University (The world’s third best university according to the World University Rankings). A Professor called Tob Tibshirani wrote it. He is, according to his article below, one of the minds behind what I think would revolutionize research (all respect). I highlighted in red the important aspects of the article.

“PubMed Commons:  A system for commenting on articles in PubMed”

PubMed Commons:  A system for commenting on  articles in PubMed


The Need for a Comments System

Professor Tob Tibshirani, Stanford UniversityWe all read a lot of papers and often have useful things to say about them, but there is no systematic way to do this – lots of journals have commenting systems, but they’re clunky, and, most importantly, they’re scattered across thousands of sites. Journals don’t encourage critical comments from readers, and letters to the editor are difficult to publish and given too little space. If we’re ever going to develop a culture of commenting on the literature, we need to have a simple and centralized way of doing it.

Pat Brown, Mike Eisen and David Lipman

Last year, I approached my Stanford colleague Pat Brown, a founder of PLOS, with the idea of creating a site where scientists could comment on ANY published research article – something like comments on movies at Internet Movie Data Base (IMDB) or comments on books and other products at Amazon. Pat said that he been discussing similar ideas with his PLOS co-founder Michael Eisen, and that they felt strongly that a standalone site would be unlikely to work because it would not get enough traffic. They felt that the best way to develop a successful culture of commenting on science papers would be to make this an option at PubMed.  Pat introduced me to David Lipman, the Director of the NCBI (the home of PubMed), who said that the idea has been raised many times in the past, and that he was open to implementing such a system if I could demonstrate broad support in the community.

So I organized a group of 34 team leaders, representing diverse scientific fields. They recruited teams of prominent researchers in their fields – 250 in all, who were committed to the idea. David took the idea to the NIH leadership,  who approved the development of a pilot commenting system called PubMed Commons. The team of scientists I assembled agreed to beta test the system during development and to provide feedback on its design and operation. 

Who should be able to post comments?

A central issue for PubMed Commons was  the question of who should be able to post comments.  One would like the system to be inclusive as possible but many scientists would not be interested in posting comments in a system with a high proportion of irrelevant or uninformed comments.  NIH also needed a rule for who could post that would be pretty clear cut and not based on e.g. some judgment of the experience or knowledge of the participants. The decision was made that comments could only be posted by authors of papers in PubMed. This would make the situation symmetric in that all people who comment can have their own work commented on.  It would also include a large number of potential participants and would meet NIH’s need for something unambiguous.  Unfortunately it would leave out many people who could add valuable input, including many graduate students, patient advocates, and science journalists.  I’m a little worried about this restriction, as I want to make the system open to as many users as possible. But hopefully that is a pretty wide net, and it may be widened further in the future.  And a group commenting feature to be described below could help improve inclusiveness.

Anonymous comments allowed?

One big issue that we have faced was the question of whether anonymous comments should be allowed. After much discussion, the group remained deeply split on this issue.  Those wanting anonymous posts were concerned that many scientists, especially junior researchers, would be reluctant to make critical comments.  But those opposed to anonymous comments believed that the quality of interchange would be higher if commenters were required to identify themselves.  In the end, these differences weren’t really resolved and the decision was to start without anonymous comments and re-evaluate after the system had been fully public for a while.  While debating this issue various proposals were put on the table for ways to allow participants to review and essentially sponsor the anonymous post of another participant. 

Group comments

Gary Ward, an active member of the lead user group, was very keen on using PubMed Commons to post comments from a journal club for a class he participates in  at  the University of Vermont. He proposed that there should be some way for PubMed Commons to accommodate comments posted by a group.  David Lipman noted that group comments would also be a way to allow participation by a wider range of commenters:  A group could be initiated by a regular PubMed Commons participant (i.e. was an author of a paper indexed in PubMed), giving it a title, short description, and list of participants and then posting comments on their behalf.  While a group comment could be submitted by a particular group member, in many cases, they would reflect the consensus of the group and such collective comments  could  be quite valuable.

PubMed Commons is here!

The NCBI team developed a working version of PubMed Commons earlier this summer and I posted the first comment in the closed pilot on June 17.  Since then the user group has noted bugs and made a number of requests for modifications.  Jonathan Dugan of PLOS labs pulled together members of the publishing world for strategic advice, and has provided many valuable suggestions about the design of the system.  Hilda Bastian,  the editor of PubMed Health and a blogger at Scientific American rallied the community’s science bloggers to help get the word out.The current system is pretty simple – after registering you’ll see the PubMed Commons landing page which has all the most recent comments and links for information on how to use the system.  When you’re signed in you’ll see below each PubMed record  a box for posting comments or replies to existing comments as well as a place to indicate that an existing comment or reply was useful.  There are instructions for how to specify simply formatting of a comment and if you cite another PubMed record in your comment, there are links back from that cited paper to your comment.

We believe the system is now ready for a wider range of participants.  If you’ve been funded by an NIH Extramural grant (or in the NIH Intramural program), NIH has the information it needs to get you into PubMed Commons automatically.  Once you’re a registered participant, you can invite other published scientists to join.  NCBI is investigating ways to open Commons up directly and automatically to more groups of published scientists but if new participants invite their colleagues, the network effect could broaden membership and expand participation dramatically.

The system will still be in a closed pilot mode where only registered participants can see the posted comments but NIH leadership will be evaluating the closed pilot with the hope of making all comments visible to all users of PubMed. All comments are covered by Creative Commons Attribution license ( ) and if the decision is to make the system fully public, NCBI will provide an API so that other groups (e.g. publishers or other information resources) can make these comments useful to the community.

PubMed Commons was released for broad use on October 22, 2013

See the PubMed Commons Landing page

I am very excited by this initiative, and hope it can improve the quality of scientific interchange the community.

Rob Tibshirani, Stanford University

N.B. I found this article through this nice blog.

Source of Prof. Tob Tibshirani’s photo: Professor’s page in Stanford University.


Some important links:

# The official page of PubMed Commons in the PubMed Website:

# Find all PubMed Citations with comments: This search results page contains all PubMed papers that has comments. Today, 8/3/2014, the number of PubMed Papers with citations is 876. This does not reflect the total number of comments as some papers has more than one comment.

# How to join PubMed Commons? Can you?
“Joining PubMed Commons: A Step-by-step Guide”

Figure 2 – PubMed Commons home page that will appear for someone who is logged in to My NCBI but who is not a PubMed Commons participant. Click the indicated link to learn how to join PubMed Commons.

Source of the photo:

# PubMed Commons on Twitter: The description of this account reads, “PubMed is piloting a beta commenting system. Get involved! Follow us and we’ll keep you posted.”

The description of this account reads, “PubMed is piloting a beta commenting system. Get involved! Follow us and we'll keep you posted.”

Examples of comments:




Finally, why am I excited?

1) In the past, I depended on the number of citations that a paper has, in order to judge how good it is. But now, I can also more reliably depend on the comments posted under the paper in PubMed.  This is important especially for newly published papers that do not yet have many citations. Moreover, this is important for papers about topics that do not bring many citations.

2) In YouTube videos, when a person reads the different comments under a video, and sees, for example, how some users are proving or disproving an argument. Consequently, the person would learn to think in a new way. By seeing how others analyze a point of view, and then how they prove or disprove it, then a person will certainly learn this skill by time. Similarly, I believe that when inexperienced individuals see how experienced researchers criticize the information mentioned in a paper, then they will start learning how to do that. They will know, for example, what to look at when reading a similar paper. Imagine this situation: You read a paper and decide to cite it in your paper. You then remember PubMed Commons and go and read the comments posted under that paper. After reading a few comments, you will get that point of:

“How did I did not notice that when I read the paper? Yes, what the comments say is logical! There are huge mistakes in the study methodology and the results are therefore unreliable. I should not cite it although it has a good number of citations. Probably, the people who cited this paper did not read these comments in the PubMed page of the paper. I wonder if they know about PubMed commons!”

Woman thinking

Source of photo:

3) Authors will benefit too, not only be embarrassed :). Firstly, this will provide them with a feedback regarding their work so that they can avoid repeating the same mistakes in the future. In addition, I believe that authors will start paying more attention to what they publish. The situation is now not like in the past and many people can in minutes expose to the whole world the mistakes in their lousy work.

4) I expect that experienced people do not have time to go through the lengthy process of sending a “letter to the editor.” I believe that the lag of time between sending the letter and the time for a reply will decrease enthusiasm. In addition, I believe that there is a limit to the number of “letters to the editor” that a journal will publish. Online comments can solve all of this.

That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind


To sum up, I am really very excited about the implications of this “small step” on research and researchers worldwide. The scientific community should have thought of allowing comments on papers  since a long time ago. Nevertheless, as the maxim says, “Better late than never!”

معاملة البورد الألماني = معاملة البورد الأردني = معاملة البورد العربي في إمارة دبي وجزئياً في إمارة أبو ظبي – German Board v.s. Jordanian and Arab Boards

هل البورد الألماني يشكل أي أفضلّية في الخليج على البورد الأردني أو البورد العربي ؟

كان هذا السؤال هو موضوع نقاش تم في أفضل مجموعة عربية  على الفيسبوك (برأيي) مختصة بالإختصاص في ألمانيا: مجموعة الدكتور فراس عبيدات (مقابلات الإختصاص في ألمانيا). بدأ النقاش في 28/01/2014 وما زلت أرى تعليقات جديدة على الموضوع آخرها اليوم. عندما قرأت الموضوع، لم أتفاجأ كثيراً بالآراء السلبية عن الإختصاص في ألمانيا، وذلك لأنه هذا أمر شائع في الجروبات وخصوصاً من الأطباء الذين لم يحالفهم الحظ في ألمانيا. ولكن الأهم من ذلك أن كل هذه الآراء تنشر بشكل شبه دائم بدون أي مراجع. بخصوص السؤال أعلاه، هذا رأي سلبي عن الإختصاص في ألمانيا يبدو أن صاحب التعليق قد نقله من مكان ما:

لو سمحتم يا دكاترة انا قرأت الكلام ده ولا ادرى مدى صحته ارجو من حضراتكم التوضيح هل صح أم غلط و ما هو التقيم الفعلى لشهادة الفاخ فى العالم ومصر ودول الخليج ارجو الرد والتوضيح ولكم جزيل الشكر:

الفاخ كشهادة قيمتها ضعيفة حتي في المانيا . عنى حصولك عليها طبقا للنظام الالماني انك كده اصبحت امن علي المريض ومؤهل لاستكمال تدريبك اللي بالاساس بيتم في الفترة اللي بعد الفاخ وحتى الوصول الي اوبر ارتز Oberarzt .

الفترة دي بتبقي علي الاقل سنتين وقد تصل الي خمس سنوات من التدر هي التعليم الحقيقي ، يستثني من ذلك تخصصات زى التخدير اللي نظرا لقلة العاملين به والشغل الكتير فحت فالناس بتعلمك شوية بقدر تسيير الشغل فبتلاقي نفسك خصوصا لو ف مستشفى كبير نسبيا او متوسط متعلم لك حاجة وواقف ع رجلك شوية ، بس برضوا هيبقي ناقصك كتير ف الاغلب، تخصصات اخرى زى النسا والجراحات انت اصلا ممكن ماتشوفش العمليات ف الخمس سنين الا اخر سنة او اتنين وهتبقي بتساعد مش بتمد ايدك ، الباطنات مش مسموح لك تعمل حاجة مع نفسك غير لما تبقي فاخ .

النقطة التانية الفوارق الكبيرة بين المستشفيات ، مستشفى ف قرية وللا مدينة عدد سكانها لا يتخطى عشرين الف ، بالتاكيد مستوى الطبيب والنيابة فيها مش هيبقي زى مستوى مستشفى كبير ف مدينة رئيسية ، والبرنامج التدريبي هيبقي مختلف جدا، ف الاولي الاغلب ان الشغل اللي بيقوم به الاوبر ارتز وانت بتعمل اعمال ورقية وتتابع المرضي بالاساس ، ف المستشفيات الاكبر اللي هتشتغل فيها غالبا لما تقدم هنا شوية او بعد ماتبقي فاخ الشغل الكتير هيدى لك فرصة اكبر تمد ايدك.

م الاخر البرنامج التعليمي هنا ينتهي انك تبقي Oberarzt مش بحصولك ع الفاخ ، ويمتد مابين سبع الي عشر سنين مش اربع خمس سنين تضرب فيهم الفاخ وتجرى.. 
اى دولة هلاقيها بتعادل الفاخ كشهادة بالBritish Fellowship or American Board or even Arabian board تبقي بلد خرفان مش فاهمين حاجة وموهومين بالنسر الالماني اللي ع الختم بس
المصدر: بوست في مجموعة الدكتور فراس عبيدات لعضو تحت اسم Ahmed Shams.

يفترض بأي شخص أن يتأكد من أي كلام يسمعه من مراجع أو مصادر رسمية. ولذلك، أعجبني تعليق من أحد أعضاء المجموعة (Mohammed Alaqad) حيث قام بوضع روابط إلى الهيئات الصحية الرسمية في إمارتي دبي وأبو ظبي. تظهر هذه الروابط تقييم هذه الهيئات للبورد الألماني مقارنة مع البوردات العالمية الأخرى. وبالواقع، تفاجأت لا بل انصدمت  بما قرأته حيت تبين أنه:
(1) في إمارة دبي الحاصلون على البورد الألماني هم مساوون من حيث شي يسمى التأهيل للحاصلين على البورد العربي أوالبورد الأردني.
(2) في إمارة أبو ظبي الحاصلون على البورد الألماني بعد فترة تدريب في مستشفى غير جامعي هم مساوون في درجة التأهيل للحاصلين على البورد الأردني أو البورد العربي. أما الحاصلين على بورد ألماني من مستشفى جامعي فقط فهم يعتبرون من المؤهلات من الصف الأول ومساوون في التأهيل للبورد الأمريكي أو البريطاني.

أو هذا تلخيص لهذه المعلومات للكاتب الذي قام مشكوراً بنشر الروابط:

Summary of the situation in Abu Dhabi and Dubai by Mohammed Alaqad

التفاصيل مع المراجع:

إمارة دبي:

البورد الأردني والبورد العربي مساويان من حيث “درجة التأهيل” للبورد الألماني. هذه التخصصات الثلاثة تعطي مؤهلات من الدرجة الثانية Tier 2 Qualifications:

البورد الأردني والبورد العربي مساويان من حيث “درجة التأهيل” للبورد الألماني. هذه التخصصات الثلاثة تعطي مؤهلات من الدرجة الثانية Tier 2 Qualifications:

المصدر: موقع هيئة الصحة في دبي، قسم التنظيم الصحي، ملف بعنوان: Dubai Healthcare Professional Licensing Guide 2013، الصفحات 17 و20 و 22.
رابط الصفحة: اضغط هنا.
رابط الملف: اضغط هنا.

الدول التي تعطي الأخصائي مؤهلات من الدرجة الأولى في أمارة دبي:

الدول التي تعطي الأخصائي مؤهلات من الدرجة الأولى في أمارة دبي:

الدول التي تعطي الأخصائي مؤهلات من الدرجة الأولى في أمارة دبي:

المصدر: موقع هيئة الصحة في دبي، قسم التنظيم الصحي، ملف بعنوان: Dubai Healthcare Professional Licensing Guide 2013، الصفحات 17 -28.
رابط الصفحة: اضغط هنا.
رابط الملف: اضغط هنا.

ماذا يترتب على تصنيف إمارة دبي للإخصائيين إلى أصحاب مؤهلات من الصف الأول Tier 1 Qualifications وأصحاب مؤهلات من الصف الثاني Tier 2 Qualifications؟

الأخصائيين الحاصلين على مؤهلات من الصف الأول لا يحتاجون إلى أية سنوات خبرة للحصول على إعتراف بهم كإخصائيين (مثلا، الحاصلين على البورد الأمريكي). أما من يحملون مؤهلات من الصف الثاني (البورد الأردني أو البورد الألماني بغض النظر إن كان بعد تدريب في مستشفى جامعي أو غير جامعي) فيحتاجون إلى سنتي خبرة. في حال عدم توفر سنتي الخبرة، سيتم إعطائهم تصريح مؤقت Provisional license تحت مسمى أخصائي تحت الإشراف Specialist Under Supervision.

وللحصول على إعتراف كإستشاري، أصحاب المؤهلات من الصف الأولى يحتاجون فقط إلى سنتي خبرة. أما أصحاب المؤهلات من الصف الثاني فيحتاجون إلى ثمانية سنوات خبرة. انظر إلى الصورة في الأسفل:



المصدر: موقع هيئة الصحة في دبي، قسم التنظيم الصحي، ملف بعنوان: Dubai Healthcare Professional Licensing Guide 2013، الصفحة 16.
رابط الصفحة: اضغط هنا.
رابط الملف: اضغط هنا.

إمارة أبو ظبي:

الإمارة تفرق بين البورد الألماني الذي حصل عليه الأخصائي بعد تدريب في مستشفى جامعي أو مستشفى غير جامعي. معاملة الأخصائيين الذين انهوا تخصصهم في مستشفى غير جامعي تساوي البورد الأردني والبورد العربي.  وهذان البوردان يعطيان الأخصائي مؤهلات من الدرجة الثانية Tier 2 Qualifications. انظر إلى الصورة في الأسفل التي نقلتها من ملف من موقع هيئة الصحة في أبو ظبي من ملف بعنوان 2011 َProfessional Qualifications Requirements PQR.

لاحظ أن البورد الألماني من مستشفى غير جامعي = بورد أردني = البورد العربي = بقية المؤهلات من دول عربية مثل مصر والعراق ولبنان.


المصدر: موقع هيئة الصحة، أبو ظبي، ملف بعنوان Professional Qualifications Requirements 2011، صفحة 18.

رابط الصفحة:

البورد الألماني لأخصائي أنهى تدريبه في مستشفى جامعي ألماني يعتبر من مؤهلات الصف الأول. أي أنه مساوي للبورد الأمريكي أو البريطاني بالإضافة إلى دول متقدمة أخرى. يمكنك أن ترى الدول التي تعطي الأخصائيين “موهلات من الدرجة الأولى”:

البورد الألماني لأخصائي أنهى تدريبه في مستشفى جامعي يعتبر من مؤهلات الصف الأول. أي أنه مساوي للبورد الأمريكي أو البريطاني بالإضافة إلى دول متقدمة أخرى يمكنك أن تراها في الصورة في الأسفل من نفس الملف المذكور أعلاه:

المصدر: موقع هيئة الصحة، أبو ظبي، ملف بعنوان Professional Qualifications Requirements 2011، صفحة 17.

رابط الصفحة:

ماذا يترتب على التصنيف إلى مؤهلات من الدرجة الأولى أو الثانية في إمارة أبو ظبي؟

حسب الجدول التالي، هذا يحدد سنوات الخبرة المطلوبة بعد البورد وذلك للحصول على مسمى إستشاري. للإخصائيين ذوي مؤهلات من  الدرجة الأولى (مثلاً، البورد الأمريكي أو البورد الألماني بعد تدريب في مسشفى جامعي) سنوات الخبرة المطلوبة هي سنتان فقط. أم لأصحاب المؤهلات من الدرجة الثانية، مثل البورد الأردني أو البورد العربي أو البورد الألماني بعد تدريب في مستشفى غير جامعي، فترة الخبرة المطلوبة هي ثمانية سنوات. انظر إلى الصورة في الأسفل من نفس الملف:

المصدر: موقع هيئة الصحة، أبو ظبي، ملف بعنوان Professional Qualifications Requirements 2011، صفحة 15.

رابط الصفحة:

يا هل ترى، ما هو الوضع في باقي دول الخليج؟ هل البورد الألماني مساوي في القيمة للبورد الأردني أو للبورد   العربي؟


Volunteering with Operation Smile Mission in Jordan – January 17th, 2014

Logo of Operation Smile

Logo of Operation Smile

Last Friday, 17/1/2014, I had the honor of volunteering in the screening day of an Operation Smile Mission in Al Hussein Hospital, Ein El Basha, Amman. Among students in my batch, only my friend Yazeed Azzam and I went to this event. It was the first time for both of us to participate in a mission by Operation Smile Jordan.

Originally, I came to know about Operation Smile Jordan through their facebook group. If you like to volunteer in Operation Smile Jordan then visit this group. My experience upon entering this group was the “most” beautiful one that I have ever had in my life. To spread the news about Opeartion Smile – Jordan, I wrote the following back in 03/06/2014 in my group “USMLE Takers – Jordan“:

Operation smile Jordan: Who hasn’t heard about operation smile? If you asked me about a voluntary medical organization, then this is the second that would cross my mind after “Doctors without borders”.

Operation Smile Jordanian website:

Their facebook group:

This is what is interesting: The admin welcomed me upon being accepted into the group with a comment (!!!). This was very nice because no one has ever welcomed me into a group before. Have you?

Next, she directed me to send them an email at ”” containing my contact details and what I do in life. She said that they will send me later on a special application form based on my profession.

Later on, I was told that, at any time, if I wanted to know further information: 

“I do recommend that you either call us at [0777327510] or visit us to know about us and ways in which you can help”

Summary of my experience: I am now more encouraged to go not only because of how famous this organization is, but also, because of how enthusiastic the welcoming was!

Anybody going with me?

Back to last Friday, I had to arrive at the hospital at 8 AM and when I did, was surprised by the number of people who were crowding inside and outside a tent that was erected in front of the hospital’s main entrance for registration purpose (I think). I easily and quickly noticed the very beautiful yellow-colored shirts worn by volunteers of Operation smile. A friend of mine was outside there coordinating things (Dr. Rami Abu-Alhuda). Dr. Rami has a huge voluntary experience with Operation Smile. Hearing his description of his experience  with operation smile was one of the main reason why I decided to go that day. I greeted him and he then told me to go inside,wear the Operation Smile shirt, and then find the job required from me.

Before I enter to wear my shirt and start working, a view of the dawn at 7:53 AM, above a mosque in Al-Baqa Refugee Camp, Amman, Jordan.

Before I enter to wear my shirt and start working, a view of the dawn at 7:53 AM, above a mosque in Al-Baqa Refugee Camp, Amman, Jordan.

Upon entering inside, I was happy with the huge number of volunteers. There were certainly many western volunteers. In addition, there were many Jordanian volunteers. Every one seemed to now what he was doing. I went and got my very comfortable and beautiful Operation Smile shirt.

Dr. Yazeed Ali Al-Azam and I with our very beautiful and comfortable operation smile shirts.

Dr. Yazeed Ali Al-Azam and I with our very beautiful and comfortable operation smile shirts.

Next, I was sent to an official Jordanian volunteer woman who checked a printed list to see where I am to work. I respect the organization of operation smile Jordan because they asked us to confirm our coming to the event 8 days before the mission. More impressing, they had sent us an email notifying us about this mission on 8/12/2013. This was the email:

Dear  Volunteers,

We are glad to inform you of Operation Smile Jordan’s upcoming mission which is scheduled from January 17th to January 23rd, 2014 at Al Hussein Hospital , Ein el Basha.

Screening days:

Friday, January 17th, 2014 (6:30 am – 6:00 pm) 

Note: On screening days, you are expected to work the WHOLE day from 6:30 am until 6:00 pm.

Surgery days:

Sunday, January 18th, 2014  – Thursday, January 23rd, 2014

Note: On Surgery days, there will be two shifts (A and B).

 Shift A: 6:00 am – 2:00 pm
 Shift B: 12:30 pm – 7:00 pm

Thursday, January 23rd, 2014 (6:00 am – 3:00 pm)

Note: Meeting point for buses is at Regency hotel,Al Dakhleyyeh Circle.

Please note that buses will leave at their exact times so do not be late. IT IS IMPORTANT NOT TO SHOW UP WITHOUT PREVIOUS COORDINATION WITH THE HUMAN RESOURCES COMMITTEE.  If you are willing to participate with us in this mission you HAVE to reply to this email with the days and the shifts that are suitable for you As Soon As Possible! 

Note: Deadline for reply, the end of Thursday January 9th,2014. 

Attached to this email is a document containing things you might need to bring or do when attending the mission, therefore, you are kindly requested to read it.

Kindly be informed that if you are attending the mission and need a request for a leave of absence letter ( School, University, Work) please send an email to

Ghalia Bassam 

A famous Jordanian plastic surgeon, Dr. Mahmood Bataineh, examined the hundreds of patients whom thought that Operation Smile could help them. Dr. Bataineh then filtered the patients whom operation smile could help. Those patients then passed through many examination rooms; vital signs, burns, anesthesia, dental, speech, among few others. I was assigned to one of the different examination rooms of the patients. I had the honor of getting to know many  nice and special doctors: Prof. Mostafa El-Sonbaty from Egypt, Dr. Bivik Shah from the USA, and Dr. Osama Qaffaf from Jordan,  among many others.

All of the doctors who worked in our clinic, plus some other volunteers.

All of the doctors who worked in our clinic, plus some other volunteers.

My friend Dr. Yazeed Ali Al-Azam and the volunteers in his clinic

My friend Dr. Yazeed Ali Al-Azam and the volunteers in his clinic

Name Tag of Dr. Bivik Shah. I place this Tag because an interesting info. According to Dr. Shah, name "Bivik" is very unique all over the world. I think that he told me that only he got that name. Isn't this interesting? To have a name that only few people in the whole world have?

Name Tag of Dr. Bivik Shah. I place this Tag because an interesting info. According to Dr. Shah, name “Bivik” is very unique all over the world. I think that he told me that only he got that name. Isn’t this interesting? To have a name that only few people in the whole world have?

We started working at about 9 o’clock. The clinics continued working, non-stop until after 5 PM. Even a lunch break or a prayer break was not made. Always, someone stayed in the clinics in order that that the flow of patients will not be interrupted. During working, the minister of health, Dr. Ali Hiasat, visited our clinic. In total 113 patients were examined. A Swedish-American Anesthesiologist  told me later that day that they would probably operate at least 90 of these patients.

A sixth-year student from the University of Jordan and I were required to keep record of all the patients who were examined in our clinic. This was the last paper we filled. The number of the last patient was 113.

A sixth-year student from the University of Jordan and I were required to keep record of all the patients who were examined in our clinic. This was the last paper we filled. The number of the last patient was 113. And yes, thanks Dr. Yazeed for allowing me to take the photo using the back of your Operation Smile shirt as a background 🙂

I tried to participate in other days. I sent an email last Saturday stating which days I could come. However, I did not get a reply. I should have done that long time ago. Because their email stated that a person cannot simply “show up without previous coordination” and that the deadline of reply was “the end of Thursday January 9th,2014”. So, why I had not sent this email earlier? I actually did not expect that I want to come more than one day to this mission. This is what I wrote in the email on Saturday:

This is Jameel Hijazeen. Yesterday, I had the very nice experience of volunteering with operation smile for the first time in my life.

I did not know my schedule this week, and yes, I thought that I would be bored, and therefore I did not intend to come for more than the screening day.

I entirely changed my mind. If there were a place, I would certainly love to participate. I can come in up to three of these five shifts.

I hope that I will have time to participate in their future mission. The experience was great. You will get to know people from different countries, see multiple medical conditions, experience unforgettable moments children who have really bad problems but still had great spirits, get a free shirt, lunch, and a lot of Falafel Sandwiches 🙂 . And yes, if you volunteer long enough, they will give you a certificate with that. Unfortunately, I could not get a certificate :(.

I highly suggest that you go and try volunteering with Operation Smile!

The First Scientific Day of the Karak Governmental Hospital, Karak, Jordan, 09/11/2014 اليوم العلمي الأول لمستشفى الكرك الحكومي

Abstract books of the First Scientific Day of the Karak Governmental Hospital 2014

Abstract books of the First Scientific Day of the Karak Governmental Hospital 2014

Scientific Day's Committees and Topics Yesterday, I had the honor of being a participant in the first scientific day of the Karak Governmental hospital. I was not only a member of the organizing committee, but also, a speaker in one paper, and co-author in two others.

The event was under the patronage of the minister of Health, Dr. Ali Hiasat. However, he could not come and sent the Head of the Directorate of Health of Karak Governorate, Dr. Haitham Al-Mohesen. The event was organized with the help of the Jordanian Hematology Society headed by Prof. Abdullah Abbadi. The president of Mutah University, Prof. Rida Khawaldeh, and Prof. Zouhair Ammarin, the dean of the faculty of Medicine at Mutah University attended the inauguration ceremony.

From the second person in the right side of the photo: Prof. Abdullah Abbadi, President of the Jordanian Society of Hematology, Prof. Rida Khawaldeh, President of Mutah University, and Dr. Zouhair Ammarin, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at Mutah University.

From the second person in the right side of the photo: Prof. Abdullah Abbadi, President of the Jordanian Society of Hematology, Prof. Rida Khawaldeh, President of Mutah University, and Dr. Zouhair Ammarin, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at Mutah University.

This was the first time ever for the Karak Governmental hospital to organize a scientific day. I was lucky enough that this coincided with my being an intern in this hospital. Five of my fellow interns and I were given the chance to present three researches of ours. I certainly thank Dr. Zakaria Al-Nawaiseh, the Manger of the Karak Governmental and the President of the scientific day. I also thank Dr. Hani Al-Hamaidah, the head of the scientific committee and the dean of the faculty of Pharmacy at Mutah University.

Schedule of the First Scientific Day of the Karak Governmental Hospital 2014

The schedule

Dr. Zakaria Al-Nawiseh, the Manger of the Karak Governmental and the President of the scientific day.

Dr. Zakaria Al-Nawiseh, the Manger of the Karak Governmental and the President of the scientific day: Certainly, he will be remembered for having organized the first scientific day in the history of Karak Governmental hospital!

 Dr. Hani Al-Hamaidah, the head of the scientific committee and the dean of the faculty of Pharmacy at Mutah University.

Dr. Hani Al-Hamaidah, the head of the scientific committee and the dean of the faculty of Pharmacy at Mutah University.

Prof. Abdullah Abaddi while giving his lecture about Stems Cells in Jordan الأستاذ الدكتور عبدالله العبادي ومحاضرة رائعة عن واقع الخلايا الجذعية في الأردن

Prof. Abdullah Abaddi while giving his lecture about Stems Cells in Jordan

Talks of the First Scientific Day of the Karak Governmental Hospital 2014Talks of the First Scientific Day of the Karak Governmental Hospital 2014

Talks of the First Scientific Day of the Karak Governmental Hospital 2014Talks of the First Scientific Day of the Karak Governmental Hospital 2014
















My role in the organizing committee was to design and prepare the abstract book of the scientific day. Yes, it took me a lot of time. However, I learnt many new techniques in Microsoft Word, and gained a considerable experience on how to organize a schedule and deal with a lot of abstracts. The organizing company of the event, “Around the World Company for Conferences”, actually added the very beautiful upper and lower margins for each page. Also, they designed a cover pages of the abstract book. I was really impressed by this company, not only because of the previous, but also by the overall professional organization of the scientific day. Thank you!

I wrote my name at the end page of the book and I put an ad to my facebook page Medical Conferences in Jordan(to keep updated with medical conferences in Jordan). The company did not remove it. However, they used a new design for the cover page.

Abstract book designed and prepared by Dr. Jameel Hijazeen.  Medical Conferences in Jordan(to keep updated with medical conferences in Jordan).

Abstract book designed and prepared by Dr. Jameel Hijazeen.  Medical Conferences in Jordan(to keep updated with medical conferences in Jordan).

My design for the Cover Page of the Abstract Book of The First Scientific Day of the Karak Governmental Hospital

My design for the Cover Page of the Abstract Book of The First Scientific Day of the Karak Governmental Hospital

This is the abstract of the paper that I presented:


Did finishing the psychiatry clerkship improve the attitudes of medical students at Mutah University toward Psychiatry?

Jameel Hijazeen, MD*1; Fadi Farah, MD*1; Hossam Abed, MD*1; Noor Samarrai2; Radwan Bani Mustafa, MD3.

1 Interns, Ministry of Health, Jordan.

2 Fifth-year medical student, Mutah University, Karak, Jordan.

3 Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

*Sixth-year medical students at Mutah University at the time this study was conducted

Background: Countries around the world, especially low- to middle-income ones, face a shortage of psychiatrists. Psychiatry has always been an unfavorable specialty for many medical students. Several studies have confirmed that psychiatry training and exposure is associated with the development or increase of positive attitudes toward psychiatry

Objective: To investigate if the fifth-year psychiatry clerkship is associated with an improvement of the attitudes of medical students toward psychiatry.

Methods: A total of 200 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-year medical students participated in our study. Of the sample, 102 (51.0%) were females, and 98 (49.0%) were males. Our study questionnaire included the Attitudes toward Psychiatry-30 items (ATP-30) scale. This is a commonly used and validated scale for assessing the attitudes of medical students toward psychiatry.

Results: Analysis showed that there is a positive and statistically significant increase in the ATP-30 mean score of students after finishing the psychiatry clerkship (t= -2.277, p=0.024). This statistical significance in the increase of positive attitudes was found among male students (t=-3.070, 0.003) but not among female students (t=-0.121, p=0.904).

Conclusions: Like many researches from countries around the world, our results showed that having finished the psychiatry rotation was associated with the development of positive attitudes toward psychiatry. Our research identified some of the negative attitudes and misconceptions that students have about psychiatry. By identifying and addressing them in the future, we hope that this will translate into more positive attitudes of our students toward psychiatry. Indirectly, we hope that this will translate to more students choosing psychiatry as a specialty.

Keywords: psychiatry, attitudes, medical students.

The first slide in my presentation: Did finishing the psychiatry clerkship improve the attitudes of medical students at Mutah University toward Psychiatry?

The first slide in my presentation: Did finishing the psychiatry clerkship improve the attitudes of medical students at Mutah University toward Psychiatry?

Certificate of a Lecturer - Dr. Jameel Khaleel Hijazeen - Lecturer د. جميل خليل حجازين - محاضر

Certificate of a Lecturer – Dr. Jameel Khaleel Hijazeen – Lecturer د. جميل خليل حجازين – محاضر

What each lecturer in the scientific day got

What each lecturer in the scientific day got

Dr. Fadi Farah and I, with our great supervisor Dr. Radwan Bani Mustafa.

Dr. Fadi Farah and I, with our great supervisor Dr. Radwan Bani Mustafa.


The other two papers that my friends presented, and in which I am a co-author:


Social Phobia among Students at two Jordanian Universities

Radwan Bani Mustafa, MD1; Jameel Hijazeen, MD*2; HossamAbed, MD*2; Fadi Farah, MD*2; Hibatullah Abu El Haija3; Hanan Omari, Ph.D.4; Ayman Mansour, Ph.D.5.

1 Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

2 Interns, Ministry of Health, Jordan.

3 Sixth-year medical student, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

4 Educational Consultant, German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ), Amman, Jordan.
Professor of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

*Sixth-year medical students at Mutah University at the time this study was conducted.


Dr. Hossam Abed presenting the results our study about social phobia under the supervison of Dr. Radwan Bani Mustafa د. حسام عابد

Dr. Hossam Abed presenting the results our study about social phobia under the supervison of Dr. Radwan Bani Mustafa د. حسام عابد


Drug Treatment of Hypertension with Complications in Patients admitted into Jordanian Governmental Hospitals

Oday Al-Ma’aitah, MD*1; Imad Farjou, MD, Ph.D.2; Jameel Hijazeen, MD*1; Mahmoud Abuznaid, MD†3; Ahmed Abo.sharak, MD*1; Khaled AlShar’ ,MD*4.

1 Interns, Ministry of Health, Jordan.

2 The study supervisor, Prof. of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mutah University, Karak, Jordan.

2 GP, Al-Hannan Private Hospital, Amman, Jordan.

3 Intern, Prince Rashed Bin Al-Hasan Military Hospital, the Jordanian Royal Medical Services, Irbid, Jordan.

* Medical students at Mutah University at the time this study was conducted.

Intern at Al-Bashir Governmental Hospital at the time this study was conducted.

Systemic hypertension is a major public health problem worldwide. It is a leading factor for coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, renal disease, and retinopathy. This study aimed to explore hypertension complications among hospitalized hypertensive patients. Also, it aimed to identify the treatment of hypertension employed by these patients and compare the incidence of complications among different treatment groups. Our study was a cross-sectional study that we conducted at Al-Karak and Al-Bashir Governmental Teaching Hospitals in the period from October 2011 till March 2013. Our sample consisted of 162 patients; 96 males (59%) and 66 females (40.7%). Age of patients ranged from 40-100 years (mean of 65± 12.0 years).

The percentages of patients on mono-, double-, triple-, and quadruple-therapy were 44.4%, 34.6%, 17.3%, and 3.7% respectively. Diuretics were the most commonly used drugs in 107 patients (35%), followed by ACEI/ARBS (86 patients, 28.2%), BBs (80 patients, 26.2%), and CCBs (32, 10.5%). More males than females were on mono- and double-therapy (84.4% v.s.71.2%). Of the patients on monotherapy (72 patients, 44.4%), the most common drug used is a loop diuretic (27 patients, 37.5%) followed by ACEIs/ARBs (22 patients, 30.6%).

The prevalence of complications in patients on monotherapy was higher in patients with loop diuretics )26 patients, 38.2%) than patients on ACEIs/ARBs (19 patients, 27.0%) or BB (19 patients, 27.0%). The most common double therapy combination was a ACEI/ARB and BB (28.6%), followed by Loop & BB (26.8%). The most common triple therapy combination was a loop diuretic, ACE, and BB (28.6%). The most common complication in patients on monotherapy was Angina/ACS (29 patients, 42.6%), followed by CV/TIA (20 patients, 29.4%). The most common complications in patients on double therapy was Angina/ACS (20 patients, 36.4%), followed by decompensated HF (18 patients, 32.7%). The most common complication in patients on triple therapy was decompensated HF (10 patients, 37.0%) followed by CVA\TIA (8 patients, 29.5%).

It is concluded that the prevalence of hypertensive complications decreases as the number of antihypertensive drugs taken increases although the type of complication is not significantly changed.

Keywords: Hypertension complications, uncontrolled blood pressure, treatment

This is a YouTube video of my friend Dr. Oday Ma’aitah while presenting the results:

Video of my friend Dr. Oday Ma’aitah while presenting the results

Video of my friend Dr. Oday Ma’aitah while presenting the results:


Speakers at the First Scientific Day of the Karak Governmental Hospital

Speakers at the First Scientific Day of the Karak Governmental Hospital

Abstract - Drug Treatment of Hypertension with Complications among Patients admitted into Jordanian Governmental HospitalsAbstract - Social Phobia among Students at Two Jordanian UniversitiesAbstract - Did finishing the pyschiatry clerkship increase the attitudes of medical students at Mutah University toward Pscyhiatry

With this participation, this would be my fourth experience as a speaker in a conference/scientific day:

1) one time at The Ninth Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Medicine at Mu’tah University, Karak, Jordan, April 10-11, 2013.

2) Two times at Sixth Scientific Day of the Faculty of Medicine in Mu’tah University (09.04.2012).

How long will it before I achieve my 1,000 expereince? Possible? Who knows!


Finally, these are some great photo from the scientific day, taken elegantly by Dr. Talal Alqaisi:

طالب الزعبي، كلية الطب، سنة خامسةعريف الحفل - الدكتور ابراهيم الضمورالدكتور رضوان المجالي (2)الدكتور رضوان المجاليالدكتور زكريا النوايسة والدكتور هيثم المحيسنالدكتور زكريا النوايسةالدكتور طارق مازن جوازنةالدكتور عبد الوهاب الطراونة مدير مستشفى السلامالدكتور منير عاشور (2)الدكتور منير عاشورالدكتور هاني الحمايدة والدكتور هيثم المحيسن (2)الدكتور هاني الحمايدة يستلم درع من مندوب معالي وزير الصحة الدكتور هيثم المحيسنالدكتور هاني الحمايدةالمنظمينتكريم الدكتور زكريا النوايسةتكريم الدكتور عبد المجيد الضمور كأقدم دكتور في مستشفى الكرك الحكوميتكريم الدكتور مروان العكشة،تكريم رئيس جامعة مؤتة الدكتور رضا الخوالدةجانب من الحضور (2)جانب من الحضور (4)جانب من الحضور (5)جانب من الحضور (6)جانب من الحضور (7)جانب من الحضور (8)جانب من الحضور (9)جانب من الحضورخلال استراحة القهوةكلمة الدكتور زكريا النوايسة (2)كلمة الدكتور زكريا النوايسةمدير صحة محافظة الكرك الدكتور هيثم المحيسنالدكتور أحمد أبو نواسالدكتور إعوض الطراونة والدكتور بشارة بقاعين والدكتور أحمد أبو نواسالدكتور حسن الهواري

The DAAD Jordan has nothing to offer for medical doctors specializing in Germany!

I have always wondered if the DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst – The German Academic Exchange Service) gave any kind of scholarships to doctors specializing in German. Each year, this Nobel German organization gives tens of free Master and PhD scholarships for Jordanians . I read many announcement for scholarships in their website and in their facebook page (DAAD Information Center Amman | Facebook).

What about medical doctors? Does the DAAD offer Jordanian medical doctors any scholarships to complete their specialty in Germany? Or at least, any language courses? About two weeks ago, on November 6th 2013, the DAAD information Center Amman announced about language scholarships for Jordanian students in Germany.


Source: A post in the facebook page of DAAD information center Amman.

Although they specified that the scholarships are only for students, I wrote the following comment in the above post:


Firstly, I hoped that they might consider medical doctors aiming at a medical specialty in Germany to be students of some kind (For example, to be equivalent to master students). Secondly, if these announced language courses were not for medical doctors, I hoped that they would tell me what services they provide for medical doctors. Concerning this point, I should have contacted the DAAD that since at least 4 months ago when I first knew about it. But did I miss something by my carelessness? To the above comment, I got the following reply:


Without any delay, I sent an email to the above address. I got very nice emails from a Dr. Abdelnasser Hindawi.


So, as a medical doctor, I cannot apply for the above language courses scholarships. Nonetheless, I had some hope left; maybe more important than just a language course. Therefore, I asked about any other possible scholarships or courses for Jordanian medical doctors:


Almost one hour ago, I got the following reply from Dr. Hindawi. It turned out that I did not miss anything! Nonetheless, Dr. Hindawi sent me very useful links for medical doctors about specialty in Germany. I like them and hence, I was encouraged to write this post:

Dear Dr. Hijazeen,

On the website of the German Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer) you will find all necessary information about specialty training in Germany.

You should also take a look at the Charité International Academy (ChIA) – it offers a continuing education program for healthcare professionals with an international focus.

You will find German language courses in any major city in Germany, start with: . It is recommended that you learn as much German as you can locally, while you are preparing your stay in Germany.

However, unfortunately the DAAD does not offer financial support for medical specialist training, only for PhD work, please look under for further information.

Best regards

Dear foreign doctor, are you dreaming of a medical specialty in Germany? Are you learning or planning to begin learning the German language? Some good news and bad news… But is the final balance more good or bad?

During the previous weeks, I and many of my doctor friends, were very frightened by the rumors that spread like fire in the German medical specialty-related facebook groups. These rumors, to the best of the understanding of me and some of my friends, talked about language and medicine exams for ALL foreign doctors coming to German. These rumors also profoundly shacked the German Residency dreams of us because they also talked how there will be no more thing as “Temporary Working Permit”. In other words, your parents should be affording the price of your stay in German (For weeks? Months? Years?) until you can pass these tests and be eligible for a working permit. Hence, starting to receive a salary. Is this true? This is very frightening! I tried to relieve my fears by not searching about the topic. Beside, rumors are still rumors. Nothing is 100% certain. When the next year comes, things would become more and more clear.

Today, I found the following great German article which talks how one German state is doing to change how it deals with foreign doctors coming to work in it. This great article was posted at the Language Geneartion Center (LGC) facebook group by Frau Dr. Renat Asali. Dr. Asali is the head of the LGC center and a professor at the German department at the University of Jordan. Dr. Asali knows a lot about medical specialty in Germany. Moreover, I think that she has been so far teaching German in Jordan for +20 years. I am mentioning Dr. Asali’s qualifications mainly because I do not know how good the website that published the article (although it has a very excellent design like those of famous American newspapers). I cannot trust that website. However, I think that I can trust Dr. Asali! In addition to the above qualifications, I know Dr. Asali personally. Dr. Asali is now my German language teacher at LGC!

With the help of Google Translate, I think that I understood most of the very informative article chosen by my teacher (Here is a link to the article translated by Google Translate). I will try to summarize what I understood. Hopefully, you can correct any mistakes I will make. Together, we can arrive at a better understanding.

Let me start with some good news. The article confirms the shortage of physicians in Germany. The shortage of physicians is still in thousands. Certainly, this would not change in months or even years:

“In the year 2012, 6000 doctor posts were unfilled in hospitals in Germany according to the Federal Chamber of Physicians. The doctors’ union Marburger Bund in 2011 even spoke of 12,000 vacancies rising.”

Here comes the bad news. The article talks how “in the past”, foreign physicians were allowed to work in Germany without having their “Language skills” examined:

“… no one has examined whether [foreign doctors] can make themselves understood, and whether they understand patients and colleagues at all.

But one might say, are not foreign doctors requested to pass the B2 level? Is not this a language test?

“The language diploma [B2] to prove that the doctor has understood the main ideas of complex text on an abstract theme and can maintain a normal conversation without problems. Medical language or the “understanding between the lines” are not checked.

So, having passed the B2 level is no longer thought of to be a good “surrogate” marker for the ability of the foreign doctors to deal with German patients. The article mentions example about how (1) foreign physicians are not communicating well with patients, that (2) they are not as good as their German counterparts, and unfortunately enough, (3) that German patients are now forced to be treated by doctors from countries in which they would voluntarily not be treated by whom.

"If I had the chance, I would not allow such a doctor to treat me!" An angry German patient not comfortable with his foreign physician

Rheinland-Pfalz/Rhineland-PalatinateTherefore, “One” German state, wants to allow this situation no more. This German state is Rheinland-Pfalz/Rhineland-Palatinate. [Since the most of doctor graduates of Mu’tah in Germany are now in the Nordrhein-Westfalen state (~8), then it is worth to say that this state is the sate immediately south of NW.]

Rheinland-Pfalz/Rhineland-Palatinate state now has a “medical language test”. Rheinland-Pfalz/Rhineland-Palatinate has already “piloted” this medical language test. What caught my attention is the failure rate:

“About 180 language tests have been deposited in Mainz far, most of candidates from Romania, Hungary, Russia and Syria. Around forty percent of applicants fail the test.”

Should we panic? How hard is the exam? This paragraph can give an approximate idea what the exam is about:

“Patient must make X-ray neck

After twenty minutes Manoppo did it. You must now summarize the conversation in a doctor’s letter. Prior to the twenty-five year old has already delivered a note with translation exercises. Then they should translate into German 25 Latin medical terms. Only four were right, “invasive” for “derma”, “axillary fossa” or is it not occurred to German term. At the end of the doctor’s letter, the interview and the translation exercise will feed into the review.”

This exam is already decided upon. The good/bad news; it is only in this sate, but other states are expected to follow:

“Rhineland-Palatinate makes today the first federal state in Germany a language test before foreign doctors are allowed to work there, other [sates] are following.”

I personally think that the language test, if applied, would not make a big problem. Firstly, they are testing only “language skills”. Secondly, and most importantly, it is not an MCQ exam. It is only a passed/failed Oral exam! Take a history… summarize it… Translate some medical terms into German… Well, does this sound like an almost identical but shortened German-version of the USMLE Step 2 CS?

But, before one can say that foreign doctors should not be afraid, one should remember the “Academic Performance Test”. The following talks how foreign doctors are now allowed to work and get salaries in Germany:

*** Doctors from safe third countries, they can only get if the competent authority has established the “equivalence” of education, that is, when the size of classes, the variety of subjects and practical activities equivalent to those of medical education in Germany. Uniform guidelines for does not yet exist. The awarding of the license and the design of the tests is the states. So far, most authorities do not even want to know before the Candidates. *******But even if the “equivalence” was not found, a foreign doctor can get a temporary work permit for that state 🙂 🙂 🙂 ******* To be after a set period of a “knowledge test” is stored, which is also the states. Rhineland-Palatinate asks from knowledge in the subjects of Internal and General Medicine, Surgery and Pediatrics. In the German exams medical students are tested in more than twenty subjects, including pharmacy, ear, nose and throat medicine, urology, gynecology, psychiatry, occupational medicine or social medicine…..

The failure rate for the knowledge test is in Rhineland-Palatinate at around fifty percent 😦 😦 😦 😦 😦 😦 😦 :(. The test may be repeated three times****

To the best of my understanding, the article does not mention any thing about this being changed. Yes, if this “Academic Performance Exam” is to be extended to other German states, then certainly, the “around fifty percent” failure rate is VERY FRIGHTENING. However, there is a lot of “good news”:

1) Within a period of one and a half year, you are allowed to repeat the exam up to three times.

The failure rate for the knowledge test is in Rhineland-Palatinate at around fifty percent. The test may be repeated three times.

2) More than 20 subjects v.s. 3 subjects: German doctors are tested in over than 20 subjects. In RP state, foreign doctors are only tested in three subjects (Internal and General Medicine, Surgery and Pediatrics.).

“Rhineland-Palatinate asks from knowledge in the subjects of Internal and General Medicine, Surgery and Pediatrics. In the German exams medical students are tested in more than twenty subjects, including pharmacy, ear, nose and throat medicine, urology, gynecology, psychiatry, occupational medicine or social medicine.”

3) Thirdly, and this is the best piece of conclusion: You are given a “temporary working permit”. In other words, while preparing for the exam, you will be getting a “Salary”. Foreign doctors are given “a temporary work permit for that state”. The article does not mention anything about “No Wok (Salary) before passing the Language Proficiency Test and the Academic Performance Test”.

What about the situation in the rest of German states? Will their be exams there just like in Rheinland-Pfalz/Rhineland-Palatinate? The answer is in the SHORT TERM “No”. No decision has been reached yet:

The German Medical Assembly has already come out in May in Hannover for in June, the Conference of Health Ministers in Potsdam, completed in the claim. They also pleaded for an “improvement in the practice of recognition of foreign professional qualifications” means a transnational agency reports.

All in all, and to the best of my understanding, and please correct me if I am wrong, both of these tests are now confirmed in only one German state. Both of these tests are passed/failed exams. They are testing General information; whether in language or in medicine. Finally, and most importantly, you are not denied the “Temporary working permit” allowing you to work and get a salary before getting a salary. At least, you can work before passing the Academic Proficiency Test.

What do you think?

Prof. Jean Decety in Amman and an interesting Lecture about the Neurobiological Mechanisms of Empathy and Caring for Others

I had the honor of attending a lecture by a French American Professor called Jean Decety from the University of Chicago. The lecture took place in the building of the Jordan Society of Scientific Research (JSSR) in Amman on Wednesday, 11/09/2013 (If you want to keep updated with the activities of the JSSR, here is a link to their facebook page). The title of the lecture of Prof. Decety was:

 الآليات العصبية الحيوية التي تشكل الأساس للتعاطف و الاهتمام بالآخرين لدى الإنسان 
Neurobiological Mechanisms of Empathy and Caring for Others

The topic of the lecture seemed strange to me. For minutes, I thought of not attending this lecture. Firstly, I could not imagine about what this lecture would be. Secondly, I did not know how important Prof. Decety is. Nonetheless, because I trusted my friend who recommended this lecture for me (Thank you Dr. Ali Alfar) and because I am interested in psychiatry my possible future specialty, then I googled the name of Prof. Decety. Quickly, I discovered that there is a detailed Wikipedia page about Prof. Decety. Can anyone have a detailed wikipedia page? I also found multiple articles mentioning him. Therefore, I decided quickly to attend because I thought that I would benefit something from this lecture no matter how boring the topic turned out to be.

A friend of mine and I decided to go to this lecture. My friend is also interested in psychiatry. We arrived a few minutes before the lecture started. Prof. Decety then arrived. From the first few minutes, I could deduce that he is a jolly person, funny, and to my relive, that I would not bored by the “weird” lecture that was to come.

The lecture started. A Dr. Rana Dajani introduced Prof. Decety. I understood that Dr. Dajani and Prof. Decety conducted are conducting researches together.

The lecture started with Prof. Decety talking a little bit about his family (From my short experience in attending conferences, this is something usual with western doctors). Prof. Decety explained briefly about the research center in which he works “The University of Chicago Social Cognitive Neuroscience Lab (SCNL).” Prof. Decety is the head of this center. This information really impressed me because Prof. Decety is French. He had his Bachelor degree, three master degrees, and PhD in France [1]. Nonetheless, Prof. Decety’s un-American origin did not prevent the University of Chicago from appointing him as a head of a research center as important as the SCNL. What matters are qualifications! This reminded me of multiple articles that spoke about how the USA attracts scientists from all over the world. Why would not it? Is not the story of Prof. Decety an excellent example why this occurs?

As the topic of the lecture became more and more clear to me, I started enjoying the multiple researches about which Prof. Decety spoke. I was impressed a lot with a sentence that Prof. Decety used to describe himself: “I am an Evolutionary Psychologist.” I have never heard about a branch of science with that name. However, it was not hard for me to expect what this branch of study is about: Explaining pychology in view of evolution! [Here is a wikipedia article about Evolutionary Psychology]! This is very amazing! I love evolution and I think it is very logical to use it to explain biology. It turned out that it can also explain “psychology”… Those atheistic infidels!

From the very first minutes of the lecture, Prof. Decety mentioned the “taboo” of evolution. An attending student raised his hand and asked a question that initially appeared to be related to the lecture’s topic. Nonetheless, because I come from this society, I knew from the beginning that it was a matter of the speaker wanting to prove that evolution is wrong. The questions did not stop and were more and more indirectly revolving about the correctness of Evolution. It is really a pity that many of the people around me still discuss whether evolution is correct or not! The world is way ahead of us. I do not think that this should be a topic of discussion anymore. The debate increased and another student joined. It was then consuming a lot of time that Dr. Dajani finally intervened and said (something like): “The discussion is now about Evolution and it will not end! Evolution is compatible with religion. Some think that it is not. Here at the society we will have a lecture that shows the compatibility of evolution with religion. Let us continue the lecture.” The lecture finally resumed!

Religious explanation are so wide!

Religious explanations are so wide! I really do not understand how accepting evolution contradicts the belief in God! // Source:

Prof. Decety then explained about multiple studies. Of interest, Prof. Decety talked about the findings that the hormone oxytocin increased empathy. Prof. Decety then suggested jokingly, but also, almost seriously as of someone really concerned:

"Maybe we should spray the Middle East with Oxytocin?" Prof. Jean Decety, Head of the University of Chicago Social Cognitive Neuroscience Lab (SCNL)

“Some studies show that the hormone oxytocin increase empathy in human beings” Prof. Jean Decety, the University of Chicago.

I did not feel the time pass before the lecture ended. At his last slide, Prof. Decety had put the links of the facebook pages of his two lab: The SCNL and the Child Neuro Suite. He asked if we could like it (The link for the SCNL is here and the link to the Child Neuro Suite is here). Next, the audience asked some questions and Prof. Decety happily answered them.

Prof. Jean Decety, with active use of body language, answering the audience questions.

Prof. Jean Decety, with active use of body language, answering the audience questions.

Prof. Jean Decety, with active use of body language, answering the audience questions.

Next, I smiled a lot when I saw Prof. Decety holding a camera. What made me smile was that Prof. Decety was more interested to take photos more than the audience members who wanted to be photographed with him. When I saw the situation like this, I happily asked my friend [Thank you Dr. Fadi Walid Farah] to take a photo of me with Prof. Decety. Here I am now publishing it proudly (I hope that Prof. Decety does not mind that).

Jameel Hijazeen (Moa'bite) with Prof. Jean Decety, Amman, Jordan, 11/09/2013

[1] Jean Decety, Wikipedia,

Children of War Symposium at King Hussein Medical Center – Amman 2013

Jameel Khaleel Hijazeen with Dr. Andrew Ordon

Today, with Dr. Andrew Ordon at the Children of War Foundation Symposium – Amman 2013, King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan.

Dr. Andrew is a volunteer in a US organization called “Children of War Foundation”. During the previous days, outstanding surgeons from this organization were performing free operations on complex surgical cases at King Hussein Medical Center.
Dr. Andrew, along with his fellow American volunteers of the Children of War Foundation, gave lectures related to plastic surgery (You can see the schedule of this symposium at the events section of Medical Conferences in Jordan facebook page). They were very sophisticated lectures to the degree that I almost understood nothing! I am not embarrassed to say this because these guys were brought to Jordan, in the first place, to operate on inoperable cases that our Jordanian surgeons needed international experts to help them operate on!It was a nice experience. It is amazing to meet people whom every minute of their time counts! As long as these people are in Jordan, a smile is brought to the faces of many children and their families. Of interest, the team leader, a Japanese-American doctor, Dr. Mark M. Urata, said:

“I don’t treat my children, Japanese children, or Jordanian children… I treat the world’s children”.

Moa'bite and Anas Abu Saif, with Mark M. Urata DDS MD at the Children of War Foundation Symposium - Amman 2013, King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan.

Not only the children or their parents are happy. Surgeons of the Jordanian Royal Medical Services should be happy too. Today, Dr. Andrew was not able to give his scheduled lecture. The reason? He didn’t have a voice! So, I could deduce easily how much explanation has Dr. Andrew been giving!

All in all, one stands in awe in front of people who are spending their precious time, time in which they can easily make thousands of dollars, to help children they don’t know… Not children of my relatives, my tribe, my country, my religion… the world’s children 🙂

Logo of the Children of War Foundation

The Children of War Foundation: Thank you 🙂

The Ninth Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Medicine at Mu’tah University, Karak, Jordan, April 10-11, 2013.

A banner hanged on one of the doors of the basic faculty building: Under the patronage of his Excellency the president of the university of Mu'tah\\ Inauguration of the ninth scientific conference of the faculty of medicine\\ Mu'tah University, 10-11/4/2013.

A banner hanged on one of the doors of the basic faculty building: Under the patronage of his Excellency the president of the university of Mu’tah\\ Inauguration of the ninth scientific conference of the faculty of medicine\\ Mu’tah University, 10-11/4/2013.

Today and yesterday, April 10-11th, 2013, the 9th scientific conference of our faculty took place. In it, for the second year in a row, I was a speaker. On behalf of some dear friends of mine, I presented a paper entitled:

A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients hospitalized for complicated hypertension at two Jordanian Hospitals.

First slide in our presentation - A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients hospitalized for complicated hypertension at two Jordanian Hospitals.

First slide in our presentation

My friends with whom I worked on this project were: Oday Zayid Al-Ma’aitah, Mahmoud Yaseen Abuznaid, Ahmed Nader Abo.sharak, and Khaled Ali AlShar’. Thank you all.

We were supervised by Prof. Imad Farjou, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mu’tah University.

Prof. Imad Farjou, our great supervisor and the conference organizer. The paper on the desk in front of him is the abstract of our research :).

Prof. Imad Farjou, our great supervisor and the conference organizer. The paper on the desk in front of him is the abstract of our research :).

It was a very nice experience. So, I thank Prof. Imad very much for having dedicated some of his precious time to introduce me and my friends into the “beautiful world” of research.

Our research (top left) as present in the schedule of the 9th Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Medicine at Mu’tah University 2013.

Our research (top left) as present in the schedule of the 9th Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Medicine at Mu’tah University 2013.

Conference bag and the certificate of being a speaker - The 9th Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Medicine at Mu’tah University, Karak, Jordan, April 10-11, 2013.

Conference bag and the certificate of being a speaker – The 9th Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Medicine at Mu’tah University, Karak, Jordan, April 10-11, 2013.

Here is a piece of news in Arabic about the conference from the Jordanian newspaper Alghad:


انطلاق أعمال المؤتمر العلمي الدولي التاسع لكلية الطب في مؤتة

هشال العضايلة

الكرك – انطلقت في جامعة مؤتة أمس، اعمال المؤتمر العلمي الدولي التاسع لكلية الطب بالجامعة، بمشاركة باحثين من مختلف المؤسسات الطبية والاكاديمية الاردنية.
واشار رئيس الجامعة الدكتور رضا الخوالدة خلال افتتاحه المؤتمر الذي تنظمه الكلية بالتعاون مع القطاع الطبي الخاص والخدمات الطبية الملكية ووزارة الصحة وكليات الطب في الجامعات الاردنية، أن ما حققته كلية الطب في مؤتة خلال فترة قياسية جعل منها اسما لامعا بين بقية شقيقاتها من كليات الطب في الجامعات الاردنية التي سبقتها. ولفت  الى ان المؤتمر العلمي الذي يتناول جملة من القضايا الطبية من مختلف التخصصات كالجراحة العامة والخاصة والنسائية والتوليد والامراض الباطنية والجلدية والعلوم الطبية الاساسية وامراض الاطفال والعيون وجراحتها، دليل على نهج قويم ينهجه ارباب الاختصاص من العلماء الذين سخّروا كل ما لديهم خدمة لمسيرة مباركة وطموحة جعلت من المستحيل ممكنا ومن الحلم واقعا ملموسا.
وبين عميد كلية الطب الدكتور بسام نشيوات ان الكلية تعمل بجد من خلال التعاون مع العديد من الجهات الطبية في القطاع الخاص ووزارة الصحة والخدمات الطبية الملكية والجامعات الاردنية بهدف الارتقاء بالتعليم الطبي في الكلية، مشيرا الى تخريج ما يزيد على 600 طبيب وطبية يمارسون المهنة في وزارة الصحة والخدمات الطبية الملكية والقطاع الخاص.
ويناقش المشاركون في المؤتمر على مدى يومين اوراق عمل حول الجراحة العامة والخاصة وجراحة الكبد والبنكرياس والقنوات المرارية وجراحة التجميل والجراحة العامة والتخدير، والامراض النسائية وتنظيم الرحم، والطب الباطني والامراض الجلدية والعلوم الطبية المساندة.

المصدر: موقع جريدة الغد الأردنية، إضغط هنا.

My photos while presenting the results:

Link to the PowerPoint presentation:


My video while presenting the above results (in the PowerPoint file above) today at the conference:


مسح الموارد وفرص العمل – الصف العاشر

ماذا يعني عنوان هذه المقالة؟ ما هو هذا المسح الذي يتحدثون عنه؟ بصراحة، أنا لا أعرف شيئا عن هذا الموضوع سوى أن مجموعة من طالبات الصف العاشرمن أقاربي في قريتي جاءن لي، بوصفي طالب الطب الوحيد من قرية السماكية الذي أدرس في الأردن، وطلبن مني الإجابة على الأسئلة التي في الأسفل. موضوع إختيار التخصص الجامعي يعجبني جدا. خصوصا أنني من الأشخاص الذين دخلوا الجامعة ولم يعرفوا ما هو الفرق بين التخصصات المختلفة سوى إسمها! لذلك، إسترسلت في الحديث وكتبت الإجابات شبه المطولة على أسئلة هذا المسح الـ15!

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مسح الموارد وفرص العمل – الصف العاشر

كلية الطب - جامعة مؤتة


جميل خليل حجازين.

الكلية والجامعة:

كلية الطب، جامعة مؤتة.

المستوى الدراسي:

السنة السادسة.


ما اسم التخصص الذي تدرسه؟

الطب البشري والجراحة.


هل بالإمكان أن تصف يومك الدراسي؟

نظرا لعدد الساعات الكبير لتخصص الطب البشري (أكثر من 260 ساعة)، فإن معظم الفصول الدراسية تتكون من 18 ساعة على الأقل. وبالتالي، السواد الأعظم من أيامي الدراسية تبتدأ بالنهوض مبكرا وذلك لحضور محاضرة أو شئ يعرف بإسم تقرير صباحي على الساعة الثامنة صباحا.

مدة الدراسة في كلية الطب هي ست سنوات مقسمة إلى مرحلتين: مرحلة أساسية Basic (أول ثلاث سنوات) ومرحلة سريرية Clinical (ثاني ثلاث سنوات). والدوام في كلا المرحلتين يختلف جذريا عن الأخرى.

المرحلة الأساسية، بإختصار، هي مشابهة لباقي تخصصات الجامعة. حيث هناك مزيج من محاضرات و دوام مختبرات (كمختبرات الكيمياء وعلم الخلية والتشريح والأحياء الدقيقة والكيمياء الحيوية والفسيولوجيا وعلم الأنسجة).

المرحلة السريرية تختلف عن باقي تخصصات الجامعة حيث أن معظم دوامنا هو في المستشفيات والعيادات. هناك أربع تخصصات رئيسية (باطنية، وجراحة، وأطفال، ونسائية وتوليد) وهي التي أنا أداوم فيها حاليا كسنة سادسة.

الدوام في هذه التخصصات يتطلب حضور ما يعرف بإسم التقرير الصباحي Morning Report. حيث يطلب من كل مجموعة أن ترشح إثنين من طلبتها للمناوبة الليلية في كل يوم في المستشفى (على الأغلب، دوام حوالي 4 ساعات من الساعة الخامسة مساء وحتى التاسعة مساء). هدف المناوبة هو محاكاة الحياة العملية للطبيب من حيث كيفية إستقبال المريض في الطوارئ، ومن ثم إدخال من يحتاج منهم إلى القسم، ومن ثم كيفية طلب الفحوصات المناسبة له. أيضا، يطلب من الطلاب المناوبين تحضير شرح كامل عن بعض أو كل الحالات التي تم إدخالها. في صباح اليوم التالي، يحضر الأطباء الأخصائيون في القسم والكلية ويطلبون من الطلبة المناوبين شرح الحالة أمام زملائهم. خلال ذلك، يتم تصحيح الأخطاء التي إرتكبها الطلاب المناوبون ويتم شرح طريقة التعامل الصحيح مع الحالات المأخوذة.

بعد التقرير الصباحي، نتوجه إلى المستشفى ليقوم الأطباء المشرفين علينا بتدريسنا بجانب أسرة المرضى أو ما يعرف باللغة الإنجليزية بـ: Bedside Teaching. الطب تخصص عملي، وبحسب أنظمة كلية الطب في العالم، فإن معظم تدريس طالب الطب يجب أن يكون في المستشفى بجانب المرضى.

بعد ذلك، نعود إلى كلية الطب لنأخذ سمنارات Seminars. والسمنار هو موضوع معين يطلب من 2-3 طلاب تحضيره عن طريق عمل عرض بور بوينت PowerPoint Presentation عن الموضوع ليقوموا بشرحه لزملائهم الطلبة. دور الدكتورالمشرف على السيمنار في هذا النظام هو كمشرف عام على سير السيمنار وتصحيح أو إضافة معلومات على ما قام الطلبة بتحضيره.


هل بالإمكان أن تصف مسارك الأكاديمي منذ كنت في مرحلة المدرسة وحتى الآن؟

أنهيت شهادة الدراسة الثانوية العامة في مدرسة الوسية/الكرك بمعدل 96.1%. وكنت الثالث على محافظة الكرك. أذكر أني كنت الثالث وذلك بسبب إرتفاع معدلات الطلبة في التوجيهي خلال السنوات الثلاثة الماضية بحيث أنه، على سبيل المثال،الطالب الذي حصل على معدل %97.7 العام الماضي، لم يتوفر لديه مقعد لدخول كلية الطب. في السنة التي دخلت فيها كلية الطب، حصل الطالب صاحب معدل 94.5% على مقعد في كلية الطب.
بالنهاية، المسألة مسألة ترتيب معدلك مع الطلبة الآخرين. يعني، لا يهم إذا كان معدلك 90 أو 98… المهم هو أن أعلى 200 طالب مثلا في المملكة يتقدمون لكلية الطب، سوف يقبلون فيها عن طريق التنافس. مع الأخذ بالإختبار أنني قرأت أن هذا النظام سيتغير مع بداية السنة القادمة. لا أدري إذا دخل القرار حيز التنفيذ.


هل أنت سعيد في إختيارك لمسارك الدراسي؟ صف ذلك؟

في البداية، كنت مقتنع بتخصص الطب بناء على رغبة "المجتمع" و"رغبة أهلي". فهناك شبه قاعدة في مجتمعنا أن من يحصل على معدل عالي يجب أن يدرس الطب ثم يلي ذلك الهندسة.
هناك مقولة باللغة الإنجليزية تقول:

"أحبب عملك.. ولن تعمل يوم آخر حتى نهاية حياتك.Love y our job and you will not work another day until the end of your life".

بناء عليه، ولأنني دخلت التخصص ليس بناء عن معرفة بما يتطلبه، فواجهتني صعوبة في التعود على حضور المحاضرات لساعات طويلة ومن ثم الحاجة إلى الدراسة لساعات أطول. في التوجيهي، قيل لنا، "التوجيهي سيكون أسهل مرحلة في حياتكم". لم أصدق ذلك!

بعيدا عن التوتر والقلق من كون التوجيهي مرحلة مصيرية في حياة المواطن الأردني، بالفعل، إكتشفت لاحقا بعد دخولي كلية الطب أن هناك شئ أصعب بكثير من مادة الفيزياء والرياضيات في التوجيهي. في الطب أن غير محصور في كتاب معين أو ما يقوله دكتور معين… كتب كثيرة… دكاترة يقولون معلومات أكثر… ومئات الأبحاث الجديدة التي تنشر كل يوم.
على أية حال، بعد تجاوز المرحلة الأساسية من كلية الطب، فدوام المستشفى والتعامل مع المرضى و"حمل السماعة" جعلني مقتنع في إختياري لتخصصي بناء على "رغبتي الشخصية".
في قصة قد تكون مشابهة، درس أحدهم الهندسة بناء على رغبة أهله بناء على الرغم من أنه أحب اللغة العربية. بعد حصوله على بكالوريوس في الهندسة، عاد هذا الشخص لمقاعد الدراسة الجامعية لينتهي به ليحصل على بكالوريوس في اللغة العربية أيضا. قال هذا الشخص:

"درست الهندسة إرضاء لأهلي… ودرست اللغة العربية إرضاء لنفسي".


إذا خيرت مرة أخرى، هل ستختار نفس مجال تخصصك؟ أم تخصص آخر، ما هو ولماذا؟

نعم، بالتأكيد سأختار نفس التخصص.


ما الخلفية التعليمية في المرحلة الثانوية التي ساعدتك على الوصول لهذا التخصص؟

بإختصار، معدلك في التوجيهي هو ما يوصلك إلى هذا التخصص أو غيره من التخصصات التي تتطلب معدل عالي. الطب يعتمد على المواد العلمية خصوصا الأحياء والكيمياء. ومع ذلك، فأن تحصل على علامات كاملة في هذه المواد في التوجيهي لا قيمة له إذا لم تكن علاماتك عالية أيضا في باقي التخصصات (الثقافة العامة والرياضيات مثلا مع أن لا دخل قريب لها بالطب).

كان عنوان قسم في مجلة ماجد الإمارتية يعنوان: " من كل بستان زهرة"، لذلك فكل المواد في المرحلة الثانوية ساعدتني في الحصول على معدل عالي حتى أقبل في كلية الطب (عليك أن تأخذ زهور من كل البساتين حتى تدخل كلية الطب).


ما المهارات العامة والمتطلبات المتخصصة التي إحتجت لها للإلتحاق بهذا التخصص؟

على ماذا يعتمد القبول الموحد للجامعات في الأردن؟ بكلمات أخرى، عن ماذا يسأل طالب التوجيهي الأردني الناجح عندما يقرر إختيار تخصص دون آخر؟ فقط معدل التوجيهي! لا مهارات عامة ولا متطلبات متخصصة تؤخذ في عين الإعتبار لا في تخصص الطب ولا في غيره من التخصصات.


هل تحتاج إلى دورات إضافية للإلتحاق في هذا التخصص؟ ما هي؟

مجددا، فقط أحصل على معدل عالي في التوجيهي.


ما هي المسؤوليات التي ترتبت عليك للإلتحاق بهذا التخصص؟

مسؤولية أن الناس يبدأوا بمناداتك بلقب "دكتور" من يوم إعلان نتائج قبولات الجامعات. وباتالي، تشعر أنك يجب أن تكون شخص متزن وصاحب أخلاق عالية (على الأقل، كما قد يقول أحدهم، أمام الناس‼!). لأنك بالنهاية ستتعامل مع بشر وقبل أن يبوح أحدهم لك بمرضه أو يكشف عن جسمه لك، سيهتم، في أغلب الأحيان، بأخلاقك قبل علمك.


هل هناك طلب على التخصص من سوق العمل المحلي؟

حاليا، نعم. قبل شهور قليلة، صرح وزير التعليم العالي في الأردن، الدكتور وجيه عويس، أنه من المتوقع أن تكون هناك بطالة بين خريجي كلية الطب خلال السنوات القليلة القادمة.


هل طبيعة هذا التخصص تتطلب العمل أو التطبيق الميداني؟ خارج أم داخل الحرم الجامعي؟

التخصص يتطلب التطبيق "الميداني" (إن صح التعبير) في المستشفيات والعيادات.


ما هي خططك المهنية المستقبلية؟ هل تتناسب مع مجال تخصصك الحالي؟ وهل تتوقع أن تكون سهلة التحقيق؟ كيف؟

خططي المهنية المستقبلية، كمعظم زملائي، هو السؤال الذي كل طلاب دفعتي يسألوه الآن لبعضهم البعض وهو على أبواب التخرج: "شو بددك تتخصص؟". دفعتي 136 طالب، ولم أسمع أي أحد منهم يقول أن لا يريد أن يتخصص.

التخصص بالتأكيد هو متناسب مع تخصصي الحالي. هل سيكون سهل التحقيق؟ أضع جملة قرأتها في رواية "الحصن الرقمي Digital Fortress" لدان براون:


"لا شئ مستحيل… المتسحيل فقط يأخذ وقت أطول.

Nothing is impossible… The impossible just takes longer".

وباتالي فهي مسألة تصميم وعمل. وكما قال هنري فورد، مؤسس شركة فورد للسيارات:

"سواء إعتقدت أنك تستطيع، أو إعتقدت أنك لن تستطيع، ففي كلتا الحالتين، أنت على الأغلب محق".

“Whether you think you can, or you think you can’t–you’re probably right.”


ما السمات الشخصية التي قد يحتاجها الطالب الملتحق بهذا التخصص؟

أهم سمة، حسب ما سمعت من عدد كبير من مدرسينا في كلية الطب، وحسب ما إكتشف أنا لوحدي لاحقا هي: حب الناس!

إذا لم ترغب في خدمة المرضى، وكانت رغبتك فقط هي جمع الأموال، والتفاخر بكونك طبيب، فأنت على الأغلب لن تكون طبيب ناجح. على الأقل، بحسب وجهة نظري، لن تكون طبيب ناجح عندما تقارن نفسك بمن يتعلموا ويسهروا الليالي بحيث يستطيعوا جمع أكبر قدر من المعلومات لمساعدة المرضى.

سمات أخرى ضرورية:

1) التصميم وهو مهم جدا وذلك بسبب طول فترات الدراسة المطلوبة منك.

2) الشجاعة: ولنا في الأخبار التي نسمعها بين الحين والآخر عن الإعتداء على الأطباء خير دليل على أهمية ذلك. إذا أن البعض، ومن ضمنهم أنا، يعزون ذلك إلى عدم خبرة الأطباء بالتعامل مع المرضى وذلك لأن معظم هذه الإعتداءات، وبحسب أحد مدرسينا، تحدث مع الأطباء الجدد. بالإضافة إلى أهمية الشجاعة والقدرة على إتخاذ القراء السريع والحاسم وخصوصا في تخصص الجراحة.

3) الإكتفاء بفترات قليلة من مشاهدة التلفاز أو الزيارات الإجتماعية أو غير ذلك… لأن هناك المئات من المحاضرات تنظرك لتقرأها! خلال كتابتي لهذه السطور لحد الآن، لا بد أنه تم نشر العديد من الأبحاث الجديدة… أو تم إكتشاف فيروس جديد أو دواء جديد أو وصف لمرض جديد…

قال أبو ذؤيب الهذلي:
النفس راغبة إذا رغبتها… وإذا ترد إلى قليل تقنع

إذا أنت لا تستطيع، أو أكثر دقة، لا تريد أن ترد نفسك إلى القليل من الأمور المسلية والمضيعة للوقت، فابحث عن تخصص آخر!

4) أخيرا، وهو الأهم، أن تجهز نفسك لأن تكون "طالبا" طيلة عمرك. إذا أن هناك من يقول:

"في اللحظة التي يتوقف الطبيب فيها عن كونه طالبا… يتوقف عن كونه طبيب".


هل يمكن أن تقترح علينا أشخاصاُ آخرين أو جهات أخرى يمكن مقابلتهم ولديهم إهتمامات مماثلة؟

1) طبيب المركز الصحي في السماكية.

2) أطباء المستشفى الحكومي.


ما النصيحة التي يمكن أن تسديها للشخص الذي يفكر في الإلتحاق بهذا التخصص؟


1) معدل عالي في التوجيهي.

2) ما هو الأصعب من الوصول إلى القمة؟ البقاء عليها! لذلك، حتى لو دخلت كلية الطب، فالتحدي الأكبر الذي سيكون أمامك هو أن تستطيع أن تنجح وتتخرج منها. لأنك كل من سيكونوا معك في الدفعة هم أذكياء وأوائل مدارسهم لا بل أيضا، لعدد كبير منهم، أوائل ألويتهم ومحافظاتهم وحتى دولهم! تقريبا، واحد من كل 3 إلى أربع طلاب يدخلون كلية الطب يحولون تخصصهم لأنه لا يستطيعون إكمال الدراسة بها!

3) عندما تتخرج من كلية الطب: ألف مبروك! ولكن هناك آلاف الأطباء. حتى تستطيع أن تميز نفسك بينهم، وحتى تستطيع أن تستحق لقب طبيب أمام نفسك أولا قبل الناس، فعليك أن تستمر في كونك طالبا!7

نقطة أهم من كل الأعلى: إذا رغبت في دراسة الطب، ولم تستطع الحصول على معدل عالي يؤهلك للحصول على مقعد، فأن تختار تخصص آخر وتقتنع به وتحبه، أحسن من أن تقضي بقية عمرك تتندم على عدم دخول كلية الطب. فالتخصص لا يجعلك شخص ناجح… أنت من تجعل من تخصصك وسيلة لأن تكون أنت شخص ناجح. ومن يعتمد على تخصصه فقط ليكون شخص ناجح في هذه الحياة (سواء مال أو شهرة أو إلخ)، بالنسبة لي، لا يستحق لا تخصصه ولا نجاحه… الكاذب!

أنهي بهذه المقولة:

لا توجد طرق مختصرة لأي مكان يُستحق الوصول إليه!

There are no shortcuts to any place worth going


By Jameel Hijazeen.

What is a gallop rhythm? Is it tachycardia plus S3 and/or S4?

Firstly, what is a gallop?

Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 8th edition
gal • lop verb, noun BrE / ˈɡæləp / NAmE / ˈɡæləp /
1 [ singular ] the fastest speed at which a horse can run, with a stage in which all four feet are off the ground together
He rode off at a gallop .
My horse suddenly broke into a gallop .

2 [ countable ] a ride on a horse at its fastest speed to go for a gallop
3 [ singular ] an unusually fast speed
She always lives life at a gallop.
© Oxford University Press, 2010

This animation beautifully illustrates the “state in which all four feet [of a horse] are off the ground together“.  Actually, the story behind this animation is very interesting. It was to answer “a popularly debated question of the day [in 1872] — whether all four feet of a horse were off the ground at the same time while trotting“. You can read more here:
Some people define gallop rhythm as:

Gallop rhythm = S1 & S2 + S3 or/and S4 + Tachycardia

Today,this topic was raised in front of me. When I commented that the definition doesn’t include tachycardia. My colleagues were either silent or against my notion. Finally, the doctor said: “I have never heard of a definition of gallop rhythm that doesn’t include tachycardia!”. Well, all the following sources have something else to say. They all agree that:

Gallop rhythm = S1 & S2 + S3 or/and S4 (The definition ends here! No tachycardia!)

In more details: Gallop rhythm = S1 & S2 + S3     OR     S1 & S2 + S4     OR     S1 & S 2 + S3 & S4

Third and fourth heart sounds: These are pathological.

– A third heart sound is due to rapid ventricular filling and is present in heart failure.

– A fourth heart sound occurs in late diastole and is associated with atrial contraction.
Either, singly or together, will produce a gallop rhythm.

Source: Kumar & Clark’s Clinical Medicine, 7th Edition, 2009, p. 692:

Gallops — An abnormal S3 and S4 tend to be louder and of higher pitch (sharper) and are frequently referred to as gallops. S3 is the ventricular gallop and S4 is the atrial gallop sound. S3 and S4 can be fused during tachycardia to produce a loud diastolic filling sound, termed a summation gallop.

Source: Uptodate website and the citation of the above paragraph is: Shah, PM, Jackson, D. Third heart sound and summation gallop. In: Physiologic Principles of Heart Sounds and Murmurs, monograph No. 46, Leon, DF, Shaver, JA (Eds), American Heart Association, New York 1975. p.79.

Gallop: A triple cadence to the heart sounds; due to an abnormal third or fourth heart sound being heard in addition to the first and second sounds, and usually indicative of serious disease. Syn: bruit de galop, Traube bruit, cantering rhythm, gallop rhythm.

Gallop sound: the abnormal third or fourth heart sound which, when added to the first and second sounds, produces the triple cadence of gallop rhythm. See Also: gallop.

Source: Stedman’s Electronic Medical Dictionary, 6th edition, 2004.


A pathologic S3 or ventricular gallop sounds just like a physiologic S3. An S3 in a person over age 40 (possibly a little older in women) is almost certainly pathologic, arising from altered left ventricular compliance at the end of the rapid filling phase of diastole.62 Causes include decreased myocardial contractility, congestive heart failure, and volume overloading of a ventricle, as in mitral or tricuspid regurgitation. A left-sided S3 is heard typically at the apex in the left lateral decubitus position. A right-sided S3 is usually heard along the lower left sternal border or below the xiphoid with the patient supine, and is louder on inspiration. The term gallop comes from the cadence of three heart sounds, especially at rapid heart rates, and sounds like “Kentucky.”

Source: Bate’s Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking, 10th edition, 2009, chapter 9.

Gallop rhythm is an auscultatory phenomenon in which a tripling or quadrupling of heart sounds resembles the canter of a horse. Tachycardia need not be present.

Source: Gallop rhythm, R A O’Rourke, Calif Med. 1972 May; 116(5): 85–86,

Even Merriam-Webster website does not mention tachycardia in the definition:

gallop rhythm noun

Definition of GALLOP RHYTHM

: an abnormal heart rhythm marked by the occurrence of three distinct sounds in each heartbeat like the sound of a galloping horse—called also gallop


For Medical Students: Normal values for laboratory investigations, BP, and BMI (USMLE-friendly)

“We teach our students that they should not believe us… Do not believe your professors!” Dr. Kevin Hanretty, University of Glasgow, UK.

If some professors, somewhere, are teaching their students not to trust them, how come that you trust a colleague of yours? Therefore, the  source of the below information: Unless specified, most of the values are from “Step 1: Content Description & General Information 2012”, p. 22,  The remaining few are from “Reference Intervals for Laboratory Tests & Procedures”, ch.708, Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed, 2011.

*** To view and download a printer-friendly version, you can visit Google Docs at: ***

Normal Values: Laboratory, BP, and BMI
Reference Range
Conventional Units SI Units
Serum Nonelectrolytes
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30EC) 20-70 U/L
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT at 30EC) SGPT(serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) 8-20 U/L
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST at 30EC) SGOT(serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase) 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL 2-17 µmol/L // 0-5 µmol/L
Lipoprotein levels – Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III Classification of LDL, Total, and HDL Cholesterol (mg/dL):Cholesterol mmol/L (Total, LDL, and HDL) = mg/dL ÷ 38.6 // Triglyceride mmol/L = mg/dL ÷ 88.5 LDL Cholesterol (Primarytarget of therapy):

  • <100: Optimal
  • 100-129: Near optimal/above optimal
  • 130-159: Borderline high
  • 160-189: High
  • ≥190: Very high

Serum Triglycerides:

  • <150: Normal
  • 150-199: Borderline high
  • 200-499: High
  • ≥500: Very high
Total Cholesterol:

  • <200: Desirable\Recommen.
  • 200-239: Borderline high
  • ≥240: High

HDL Cholesterol:

  • <40: Low
  • ≥60: High
Creatine kinase, serum M: 25-90 U/L // F: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL 53-106 µmol/L
Urea nitrogen, serum Cord blood: 21-40 // Premature (1 wk): 3-25 // Newborn: 3-12 // Infant or child: 5-18 // Thereafter: 7-18 mg/dL Thereafter: 2.5-6.4 mmol/L [BUN (mmol/L) = BUN (mg/d)/2.8]
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL 0.18-0.48 mmol/L
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-99 mg/dL (USMLE: 110 mg/dL) (3.8-5.6) mmol/L2-h postprandial: < 120 mg/dL (6.6 mmol/L)
Categories of increased risk for diabetes (prediabetes): FPG: 100-125 mg/dL (5.6-6.9 mmol/L): IFG OR 2-h plasma glucose in the 75-g OGTT: 140-199 mg/dL (7.8-11.0 mmol/L): IGT OR A1C: 5.7-6.4%
Diabetes can be diagnosed with either one of the following four criteria:
(Source: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2011, American Diabetes Association)  Glucose (mmol) = Glucose (mg/dL)/18
1. A1C ≥ 6.5%.The test should be performed in a laboratory using a method that is NGSP certified and standardized to the DCCT assay. *2. FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L).Fasting is defined as no caloric intake for at least 8 h.*3. 2-h plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) during an OGTT.The test should be performed as described by the World Health Organization, using a glucose load containing the equivalent of 75 g anhydrous glucose dissolved in water.*4. In a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic crisis, a random plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L)*(*In the absence of unequivocal hyperglycemia, result should be confirmed by repeat testing.)
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kg (Osmolality=  2x[Na] + [Glucose]/18 + [BUN]/2.8)
Iron 50-170 µg/dL 9-30 µmol/L
Ferritin, serum M: 15-200 ng/mL
F: 12-150 ng/mL
M: 15-200 µg/L 
 12-150 µg/L
Serum proteins Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL 60-78 g/L
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL 35-55 g/L
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL 23-35 g/L
Immunoglobulins, serum IgAIgE
76-390 mg/dL0-380 IU/mL650-1500 mg/dL40-345 mg/dL 0.76-3.90 g/L0-380 kIU/L6.5-15 g/L0.4-3.45 g/L
Serum hormones
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 µg/dL
1600 h: 3-15 µg/dL
2000 h: <50% of 0800 h
138-635 nmol/L
82-413 nmol/L
Fraction of 0800 h: <0.50
TSH, serum or plasma 0.5-5.0 µU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24 h 0.08-0.30/24 h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 µg/dL 64-155 nmol/L
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL 1.8-2.9 nmol/L
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35% 0.25-0.35
LH, serum/plasma
(Range in SI units: Same but in U/L)
M: 6-23 mIU/mL // F: follicular phase 5-30 mIU/mL // midcycle 75-150 mIU/mL // postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
PTH, serum, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL (Pico=10-12 230-630 ng/L (Nano=10-9)
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) <20 ng/mL <20 µg/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy) 24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL 104-590 nmol/L // 208-970 nmol/L
28-32 wks // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL 140-760 nmol/L // 280-1210 nmol/L
FSH, serum/plasma
(Range in SI units: Same but in U/L)
M: 4-25 mIU/mL // F: premenopause 4-30 mIU/mL// midcycle peak 10-90 mIU/mL // postmenopause 40-250 mIU/mL
GH  – arginine stimulation
(Range in SI units: Same but in ug/L)
Fasting: <5 ng/mL // Provocative stimuli: >7 ng/mL
Serum Electrolytes
  1. 1.  Sodium (Na+)
  2. 2.  Potassium (K+)
  3. 3.  Chloride (Cl)
  4. 4.  Calcium, serum (Ca2+)
  5. 5.  Magnesium (Mg2+)
  6. 6.  Bicarbonate (HCO3)
  7. 7.  Phosphorus (inorganic), serum
136-145 mEq/L3.5-5.0 mEq/L95-105 mEq/L8.4-10.2 mg/dL1.5-2.0 mEq/L22-28 (25 ± 3) mEq/L3.0-4.5 mg/dL 136-145 mmol/L3.5-5.0 mmol/L95-105 mmol/L2.1-2.8 mmol/L0.75-1.0 mmol/L22-28 (25 ± 3)  mmol/L1.0-1.5 mmol/L
Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs) (room air)
pHPaCO2 PaO2 7.35-7.45 (7.40 ± 0.05)35-45 (40 ± 5) mm Hg75-105 mm Hg [H+] = 36-44 nmol/L4.7-5.9 kPa10.0-14.0 kPa
Erythrocyte count M: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3F: 3.5-5.5 million/mm3 M: 4.3-5.9 x 1012/LF: 3.5-5.5 x 1012/L
ESR (Westergren method) (mm/hr) (Source: Medscape) NB: 0-2 // NB to puberty: 3-13  // M under 50: < 15 // F under 50: < 20 // M over 50: < 20 // F over 50: < 30
Hematocrit or PCV (Packed red cell volume) M: 41%-53%
F: 36%-46%
M: 0.41-0.53
F: 0.36-0.46
Hemoglobin, blood  0-30 days:15.0-24.0 g/dL1-23 mo: 10.5-14.0 g/dL
Until 18:11.5-16.1 (M) // 15.0 (F)…M:13.5-17.5 g/dLF: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
0-30 days:2.32-3.72 mmol/L1-23 mo:1.63-2.17 mmol/LUntil 18: 1.78-2.50 (M) // 2.32 (F)
M:2.09-2.71 mmol/LF: 1.86-2.48 mmol/L
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL 0.16-0.62 mmol/L
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells 0.005-0.015
MCH 25.4-34.6 pg/cell 0.39-0.54 fmol/cell
MCHC 31%-36% Hb/cell 4.81-5.58 mmol Hb/L
MCV 80-100 µm3 80-100 fL (Femto  =10-15)
RDW_CV (Coefficient of Variation) 11.6-14.6% in adult
RDW_SD (Standard Deviation) 39-46 fL
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3 150-400 x 109/L
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 s
Prothrombin time 11-15 s
INR 1.0-1.1
Bleeding time (template) 2-7 minutes
Thrombin time <2s deviation from control
Leukocyte count and differential
Leukocyte count (WCC: White Cell Count) 4,500-11,000/mm3 4.5-11.0 x 109/L
  1. 1.    Segmented neutrophils
  2. 2.    Lymphocytes
  3. 3.    Monocytes
  4. 4.    Eosinophils
  5. 5.    Basophils
  6. 6.    Bands
54%-62%25%-33%3%-7%1%-3%0%-0.75%3%-5% 0.54-0.620.25-0.330.03-0.070.01-0.030-0.00750.03-0.05
Volume    Plasma M: 25-43 mL/kg
F: 28-45 mL/kg
M: 0.025-0.043 L/kg
F: 0.028-0.045 L/kg
   Red cell M:20-36 mL/kgF: 19-31 mL/kg M: 0.020-0.036 L/kg
F: 0.019-0.031 L/kg
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L (ñ in CF, Ald defeciency, or pseudohypoaldosteronism)
Sodium 5-40 mmol/L
Oxalate 8-40 µg/mL 90-445 µmol/L
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h <0.15 g/24 h
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h 2.5-7.5 mmol/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg
Sodium, potassium, chloride, and uric acid Vary with intake/diet
Creatinine clearance M: 97-137 mL/min // F: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy):

  • 30 wks
  • 35 wks
  • 40 wks
6-18 mg/24 h9-28 mg/24 h13-42 mg/24 h 21-62 µmol/24 h31-97 µmol/24 h45-146 µmol/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids M:3.0-10.0 mg/24 hF: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h 8.2-27.6 µmol/24 h5.5-22.0 µmol/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total M:8-20 mg/24 hF: 6-15 mg/24 h 28-70 µmol/24 h21-52 µmol/24 h
Urinary dipstick test (mg/dL) Trace: 10-20 // 1+: 30  // 2+: 100 // 3+: 300 // 4+: 1,000-2,000
Cell count 0-5 cells/mm3 0-5 x 106/L
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L 118-132 mmol/L
Gamma globulin 3-12% total proteins 0.03-0.12
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL 2.2-3.9 mmol/L
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL < 0.40 g/L
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
BP Classification (Source: Seventh report of the JNC, 2003, American Heart Association)
SBP (mm Hg) DBP (mm Hg)
Normal <120 and <80
Prehypertension 120–139 or 80–89
Stage 1 Hypertension 140–159 or 90–99
Stage 2  Hypertension ≥160 or ≥100
Body Mass Index (BMI)  (kg/m2(Source: WHO)
Underweight: <18.5 // Normal: 18.5-24.99 // Overweight: 25-29.99 // Obese: ≥ 30 (BMI =  Weight (kg) / Height(m)2)
  • 1 m3 = 103 dm3 = 106 cc = 10mm3 (One cubic meter = One thousand cubic decimeter = One million cubic cm =  One billion cubic mm = one billion uL)
  • 1 L = 1,000 cc = 1,000,000 mm3 = 1,000,000 uL // 1 uL = 1 mm3

 By: Hijazeen, JK. Any feedback? 

Is there a safe drug? Is there a drug without any side effects?

According to what my professors at medical school taught me, and to what I had learnt through my so far sixth-year long journey in medicine, the answer is: No! There is no drug without side effects.

To make sure of this conclusion, I searched google for terms like “drugs without side effects”, “a drug without side effects”, “no side effects drug”… etc. The previous search terms didn’t lead me to a name of a drug or a group of drugs that do not have side effects. In fact, these terms did not lead me to a single webpage that addresses this issue.

Happily, I reached a WHO page that helped me to confidently remove any possible doubts that I had:

No drug is without risk and all medicines have side effects, some of which can be fatal.

Source: “Medicines: safety of medicines – adverse drug reactions”, Fact sheet N°293, Updated October 2008, 

About one month ago, I came up with a statement that reflects this very important fact. That statement came to me in an epiphany after at least a 30-minute-long talk of rebuke by Dr. Eiad Tamimee, a Pediatric Gastroenterology doctor of mine at Mu’tah University, on the importance of us on over medicating our patients. After all, rebuking others can sometimes bring the most out of students! This might be the case with me!

I came up with my statement after remembering a statement I know that stresses the importance of asking questions:

What is a stupid question? 

A stupid question is the question that you do not ask. Or as my doctor answered after my asking him this question, “there is no stupid question”.

My suggested statement to reflect that all drugs have side effects:

What is the drug that does not have any side effects?

The drug that does not have any side effects is the drug that you do not take!

Did anyone else come up with the same statement? Am I copying this statement and attributing it to myself? Well, here are google results for this statement:


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Filetype: How to use google to search for PowerPoint presentations?

If you were asked to prepare a PowerPoint presentation then you can use google to search for already prepared ones.

I am a Medical students. Through the following method, I can easily locate tens of presentations related to common topics in Medicine.

So, how to ask google to show results that are PowerPoint presentations?

In the main page of google, type the topic you want to search for. For example, “Pneumonia”. However, to only get results that are PowerPoint presentations, you need to add the following: “Filetype:ppt” or “Filetype:pptx“. PPT and PPTX are the extensions of PowerPoint files. See the images below:



Similarly, you can use this method to search for other file types. For example, if you want to search for word documents, type: “Pneumonia filetype:doc” or “Pneumonia filetype:docx“. Or if you want to search for PDF files, type: “Pneumonia filetype:pdf“.

كيف تعرف الأسماء التجارية للأدوية المستخدمة في الأردن؟

هذه الخدمة موفرة من قبل نقابة الصيادلة الأردنيين. ما عليك سوى الدخول إلى الصفحة المذكورة في الأسفل وكتابة إسم الدواء العلمي أو التجاري للحصول على المعلومة التي تحتاجها.
مثلا، إذا كنت تحتاج لمعرفة الإسماء التجارية المتوفرة لـ Enalapril. فإنك تستطيع البحث بهذه المفرده لتخرج لك ليس فقط الأسماء التجارية له، بل أيضا التراكيز المتوفرة، الشكل الصيدلاني، بلد الشركة الصانعة والمستودعة.
هناك تفاصيل أخرى يمكنك التعرف عليها بسهولة من خلال هذه الخدمة المجانية من نقابة الصيادلة.

How do you qualify to be an author in a Medical Research? ما هي المعايير التي تؤهلك لكل تصبح مؤلف في بحث علمي

In Mu’tah faculty of Medicine, and Jordan University faculty of Medicine, there is no formal teaching or training to allow Medical students to conduct research by themselves. Almost certainly, this runs also on the remaining two faculties of Medicine in Jordan (At Jordan University of Science and Technology, and Hashemite University). I haven’t read or heard about the situation there so I can’t confirm this conclusion.

Back to Mu’tah and Jordan Universities, preparing a research, not to mention publishing one, is not part of the degree requirements to become a medical doctor. Therefore, students do research as an extracurricular activity.

During the past two years, I had the luck of dealing with many students doing research. One important thing that struck me is that many students have a misconception of how much contribution is enough to make someone eligible to be a co-author. During a study that I took part in, I asked some friends of mine to help me with distributing questionnaires and collecting them from university students. A comment that I always seemed to hear, “Well, I have collected 100+ questionnaires for you so far, why do not you make me a co-author with you in this study?”. Many think that if they simply help in data gathering, doing a literature review, data entry, data analysis, etc., then they can be eligible for authorship. But what could I have told them? From now on, I will be citing the following which happened with a colleague of mine.

My colleague submitted a paper to the Saudi Medical Journal (SMJ). As part of the reviewing process, SMJ sent him the following regarding who should qualify to be an author. The following would be a very good explanation to anyone who is new to the world of research:

“Authorship credit should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Acquisition of funding, collection of data or general supervision of the research group, alone does not justify authorship.”

To sum it up, to be eligible for authorship doesn’t only require you to finish one task; be it a literature review, study design, data collection, data entry, data analysis, or manuscript writing. On the contrary, becoming a co-author means a combination of all of the above. Or at least, most of which.

Finally, as I sometimes say when I finish my talk about research: Happy researching!