Archive for October, 2012

Can I download a YouTube playlist or a YouTube channel using IDM (Internet Download Manager)? No!

Internet Download Manager- the fastest download accelerator

Yes, you can download individual YouTube videos using IDM. Unfortunately, IDM does not support automatic downloading of multiple YouTube videos. In other words, IDM does not support downloading YouTube playlists or YouTube channels.

The following description is from the official website of IDM:

 YouTube grabber.

Internet Download Manager can record and download FLV videos from popular sites like YouTube, MySpaceTV, and Google Video. The best way of downloading webpage embedded videos from the Internet is here. After installing IDM, “Download This Video” button pops up whenever you are watching a video anywhere in the Internet. Just click on the button to start downloading clips.

Source: “Internet Download Manager Feature”,, retrieved 10/20/2012.

Notice the green “Download This Video” button in the left upper corner of the page.

As a result, you need another program called Free YouTube Download . In a previous post of mine, I explained  how to use it to download YouTube playlists or YouTube channels . Recently, in an indication of how good this program is, this post has become the second most common generator of visitors to my Blog; 15.0% (1,010) of all visits to my blog during the last 3 months.

To download this program and to learn how to use it, please visit the following post:

How to download all videos from a youtube playlist or even all videos of a youtube channel?

Samsung Amman International Marathon 2012

Today, and for the second year in a row, I participated in Samsung Amman International Marathon. The Marathon is very much similar to that of last year. However, I noticed that there is a better organization at the finish line in terms of receiving the arriving contestants and delivering medals to them.

During my last year participation, what brought my attention was that little adults participated in the contest and that the great majority of participants were either school-aged children or university-aged youth. This year, this pattern did not change.

How many adults aged more than 28 years can you count in the following photos?


Source: Al-Madenah News


Source: Al-Wakeel News

However,  this year, I noticed a new thing. The majority of adults and old people whom I saw, although very few, were foreigners!! For the second year in a raw, I post the same question, how many adult Jordanians play sports? I am confident that this would be a good research topic!

Concerning my timing for this year, I am expecting that I will improve my 53:31 timing of last year by about 5 minutes. Therefore, I expect a result of 48 +/- 1 minute. We will see two days from now!

The following are photos I took during my participation. Unfortunately, I forgot to take my 12 MP Olympus camera with me and had to take these photos using my 5 MP camera of my Nokia X2 mobile.

Update 1/10/2013: I have just read an article about photos copyrights. I have doubts now that anyone can sue you for posting a photo of him without his permission even if you removed it afterwards. I need to check that with a Jordanian lawyer!

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What is a gallop rhythm? Is it tachycardia plus S3 and/or S4?

Firstly, what is a gallop?

Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 8th edition
gal • lop verb, noun BrE / ˈɡæləp / NAmE / ˈɡæləp /
1 [ singular ] the fastest speed at which a horse can run, with a stage in which all four feet are off the ground together
He rode off at a gallop .
My horse suddenly broke into a gallop .

2 [ countable ] a ride on a horse at its fastest speed to go for a gallop
3 [ singular ] an unusually fast speed
She always lives life at a gallop.
© Oxford University Press, 2010

This animation beautifully illustrates the “state in which all four feet [of a horse] are off the ground together“.  Actually, the story behind this animation is very interesting. It was to answer “a popularly debated question of the day [in 1872] — whether all four feet of a horse were off the ground at the same time while trotting“. You can read more here:
Some people define gallop rhythm as:

Gallop rhythm = S1 & S2 + S3 or/and S4 + Tachycardia

Today,this topic was raised in front of me. When I commented that the definition doesn’t include tachycardia. My colleagues were either silent or against my notion. Finally, the doctor said: “I have never heard of a definition of gallop rhythm that doesn’t include tachycardia!”. Well, all the following sources have something else to say. They all agree that:

Gallop rhythm = S1 & S2 + S3 or/and S4 (The definition ends here! No tachycardia!)

In more details: Gallop rhythm = S1 & S2 + S3     OR     S1 & S2 + S4     OR     S1 & S 2 + S3 & S4

Third and fourth heart sounds: These are pathological.

– A third heart sound is due to rapid ventricular filling and is present in heart failure.

– A fourth heart sound occurs in late diastole and is associated with atrial contraction.
Either, singly or together, will produce a gallop rhythm.

Source: Kumar & Clark’s Clinical Medicine, 7th Edition, 2009, p. 692:

Gallops — An abnormal S3 and S4 tend to be louder and of higher pitch (sharper) and are frequently referred to as gallops. S3 is the ventricular gallop and S4 is the atrial gallop sound. S3 and S4 can be fused during tachycardia to produce a loud diastolic filling sound, termed a summation gallop.

Source: Uptodate website and the citation of the above paragraph is: Shah, PM, Jackson, D. Third heart sound and summation gallop. In: Physiologic Principles of Heart Sounds and Murmurs, monograph No. 46, Leon, DF, Shaver, JA (Eds), American Heart Association, New York 1975. p.79.

Gallop: A triple cadence to the heart sounds; due to an abnormal third or fourth heart sound being heard in addition to the first and second sounds, and usually indicative of serious disease. Syn: bruit de galop, Traube bruit, cantering rhythm, gallop rhythm.

Gallop sound: the abnormal third or fourth heart sound which, when added to the first and second sounds, produces the triple cadence of gallop rhythm. See Also: gallop.

Source: Stedman’s Electronic Medical Dictionary, 6th edition, 2004.


A pathologic S3 or ventricular gallop sounds just like a physiologic S3. An S3 in a person over age 40 (possibly a little older in women) is almost certainly pathologic, arising from altered left ventricular compliance at the end of the rapid filling phase of diastole.62 Causes include decreased myocardial contractility, congestive heart failure, and volume overloading of a ventricle, as in mitral or tricuspid regurgitation. A left-sided S3 is heard typically at the apex in the left lateral decubitus position. A right-sided S3 is usually heard along the lower left sternal border or below the xiphoid with the patient supine, and is louder on inspiration. The term gallop comes from the cadence of three heart sounds, especially at rapid heart rates, and sounds like “Kentucky.”

Source: Bate’s Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking, 10th edition, 2009, chapter 9.

Gallop rhythm is an auscultatory phenomenon in which a tripling or quadrupling of heart sounds resembles the canter of a horse. Tachycardia need not be present.

Source: Gallop rhythm, R A O’Rourke, Calif Med. 1972 May; 116(5): 85–86,

Even Merriam-Webster website does not mention tachycardia in the definition:

gallop rhythm noun

Definition of GALLOP RHYTHM

: an abnormal heart rhythm marked by the occurrence of three distinct sounds in each heartbeat like the sound of a galloping horse—called also gallop


For Medical Students: Normal values for laboratory investigations, BP, and BMI (USMLE-friendly)

“We teach our students that they should not believe us… Do not believe your professors!” Dr. Kevin Hanretty, University of Glasgow, UK.

If some professors, somewhere, are teaching their students not to trust them, how come that you trust a colleague of yours? Therefore, the  source of the below information: Unless specified, most of the values are from “Step 1: Content Description & General Information 2012”, p. 22,  The remaining few are from “Reference Intervals for Laboratory Tests & Procedures”, ch.708, Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed, 2011.

*** To view and download a printer-friendly version, you can visit Google Docs at: ***

Normal Values: Laboratory, BP, and BMI
Reference Range
Conventional Units SI Units
Serum Nonelectrolytes
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30EC) 20-70 U/L
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT at 30EC) SGPT(serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) 8-20 U/L
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST at 30EC) SGOT(serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase) 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL 2-17 µmol/L // 0-5 µmol/L
Lipoprotein levels – Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III Classification of LDL, Total, and HDL Cholesterol (mg/dL):Cholesterol mmol/L (Total, LDL, and HDL) = mg/dL ÷ 38.6 // Triglyceride mmol/L = mg/dL ÷ 88.5 LDL Cholesterol (Primarytarget of therapy):

  • <100: Optimal
  • 100-129: Near optimal/above optimal
  • 130-159: Borderline high
  • 160-189: High
  • ≥190: Very high

Serum Triglycerides:

  • <150: Normal
  • 150-199: Borderline high
  • 200-499: High
  • ≥500: Very high
Total Cholesterol:

  • <200: Desirable\Recommen.
  • 200-239: Borderline high
  • ≥240: High

HDL Cholesterol:

  • <40: Low
  • ≥60: High
Creatine kinase, serum M: 25-90 U/L // F: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL 53-106 µmol/L
Urea nitrogen, serum Cord blood: 21-40 // Premature (1 wk): 3-25 // Newborn: 3-12 // Infant or child: 5-18 // Thereafter: 7-18 mg/dL Thereafter: 2.5-6.4 mmol/L [BUN (mmol/L) = BUN (mg/d)/2.8]
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL 0.18-0.48 mmol/L
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-99 mg/dL (USMLE: 110 mg/dL) (3.8-5.6) mmol/L2-h postprandial: < 120 mg/dL (6.6 mmol/L)
Categories of increased risk for diabetes (prediabetes): FPG: 100-125 mg/dL (5.6-6.9 mmol/L): IFG OR 2-h plasma glucose in the 75-g OGTT: 140-199 mg/dL (7.8-11.0 mmol/L): IGT OR A1C: 5.7-6.4%
Diabetes can be diagnosed with either one of the following four criteria:
(Source: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2011, American Diabetes Association)  Glucose (mmol) = Glucose (mg/dL)/18
1. A1C ≥ 6.5%.The test should be performed in a laboratory using a method that is NGSP certified and standardized to the DCCT assay. *2. FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L).Fasting is defined as no caloric intake for at least 8 h.*3. 2-h plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) during an OGTT.The test should be performed as described by the World Health Organization, using a glucose load containing the equivalent of 75 g anhydrous glucose dissolved in water.*4. In a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic crisis, a random plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L)*(*In the absence of unequivocal hyperglycemia, result should be confirmed by repeat testing.)
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kg (Osmolality=  2x[Na] + [Glucose]/18 + [BUN]/2.8)
Iron 50-170 µg/dL 9-30 µmol/L
Ferritin, serum M: 15-200 ng/mL
F: 12-150 ng/mL
M: 15-200 µg/L 
 12-150 µg/L
Serum proteins Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL 60-78 g/L
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL 35-55 g/L
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL 23-35 g/L
Immunoglobulins, serum IgAIgE
76-390 mg/dL0-380 IU/mL650-1500 mg/dL40-345 mg/dL 0.76-3.90 g/L0-380 kIU/L6.5-15 g/L0.4-3.45 g/L
Serum hormones
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 µg/dL
1600 h: 3-15 µg/dL
2000 h: <50% of 0800 h
138-635 nmol/L
82-413 nmol/L
Fraction of 0800 h: <0.50
TSH, serum or plasma 0.5-5.0 µU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24 h 0.08-0.30/24 h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 µg/dL 64-155 nmol/L
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL 1.8-2.9 nmol/L
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35% 0.25-0.35
LH, serum/plasma
(Range in SI units: Same but in U/L)
M: 6-23 mIU/mL // F: follicular phase 5-30 mIU/mL // midcycle 75-150 mIU/mL // postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
PTH, serum, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL (Pico=10-12 230-630 ng/L (Nano=10-9)
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) <20 ng/mL <20 µg/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy) 24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL 104-590 nmol/L // 208-970 nmol/L
28-32 wks // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL 140-760 nmol/L // 280-1210 nmol/L
FSH, serum/plasma
(Range in SI units: Same but in U/L)
M: 4-25 mIU/mL // F: premenopause 4-30 mIU/mL// midcycle peak 10-90 mIU/mL // postmenopause 40-250 mIU/mL
GH  – arginine stimulation
(Range in SI units: Same but in ug/L)
Fasting: <5 ng/mL // Provocative stimuli: >7 ng/mL
Serum Electrolytes
  1. 1.  Sodium (Na+)
  2. 2.  Potassium (K+)
  3. 3.  Chloride (Cl)
  4. 4.  Calcium, serum (Ca2+)
  5. 5.  Magnesium (Mg2+)
  6. 6.  Bicarbonate (HCO3)
  7. 7.  Phosphorus (inorganic), serum
136-145 mEq/L3.5-5.0 mEq/L95-105 mEq/L8.4-10.2 mg/dL1.5-2.0 mEq/L22-28 (25 ± 3) mEq/L3.0-4.5 mg/dL 136-145 mmol/L3.5-5.0 mmol/L95-105 mmol/L2.1-2.8 mmol/L0.75-1.0 mmol/L22-28 (25 ± 3)  mmol/L1.0-1.5 mmol/L
Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs) (room air)
pHPaCO2 PaO2 7.35-7.45 (7.40 ± 0.05)35-45 (40 ± 5) mm Hg75-105 mm Hg [H+] = 36-44 nmol/L4.7-5.9 kPa10.0-14.0 kPa
Erythrocyte count M: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3F: 3.5-5.5 million/mm3 M: 4.3-5.9 x 1012/LF: 3.5-5.5 x 1012/L
ESR (Westergren method) (mm/hr) (Source: Medscape) NB: 0-2 // NB to puberty: 3-13  // M under 50: < 15 // F under 50: < 20 // M over 50: < 20 // F over 50: < 30
Hematocrit or PCV (Packed red cell volume) M: 41%-53%
F: 36%-46%
M: 0.41-0.53
F: 0.36-0.46
Hemoglobin, blood  0-30 days:15.0-24.0 g/dL1-23 mo: 10.5-14.0 g/dL
Until 18:11.5-16.1 (M) // 15.0 (F)…M:13.5-17.5 g/dLF: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
0-30 days:2.32-3.72 mmol/L1-23 mo:1.63-2.17 mmol/LUntil 18: 1.78-2.50 (M) // 2.32 (F)
M:2.09-2.71 mmol/LF: 1.86-2.48 mmol/L
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL 0.16-0.62 mmol/L
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells 0.005-0.015
MCH 25.4-34.6 pg/cell 0.39-0.54 fmol/cell
MCHC 31%-36% Hb/cell 4.81-5.58 mmol Hb/L
MCV 80-100 µm3 80-100 fL (Femto  =10-15)
RDW_CV (Coefficient of Variation) 11.6-14.6% in adult
RDW_SD (Standard Deviation) 39-46 fL
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3 150-400 x 109/L
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 s
Prothrombin time 11-15 s
INR 1.0-1.1
Bleeding time (template) 2-7 minutes
Thrombin time <2s deviation from control
Leukocyte count and differential
Leukocyte count (WCC: White Cell Count) 4,500-11,000/mm3 4.5-11.0 x 109/L
  1. 1.    Segmented neutrophils
  2. 2.    Lymphocytes
  3. 3.    Monocytes
  4. 4.    Eosinophils
  5. 5.    Basophils
  6. 6.    Bands
54%-62%25%-33%3%-7%1%-3%0%-0.75%3%-5% 0.54-0.620.25-0.330.03-0.070.01-0.030-0.00750.03-0.05
Volume    Plasma M: 25-43 mL/kg
F: 28-45 mL/kg
M: 0.025-0.043 L/kg
F: 0.028-0.045 L/kg
   Red cell M:20-36 mL/kgF: 19-31 mL/kg M: 0.020-0.036 L/kg
F: 0.019-0.031 L/kg
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L (ñ in CF, Ald defeciency, or pseudohypoaldosteronism)
Sodium 5-40 mmol/L
Oxalate 8-40 µg/mL 90-445 µmol/L
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h <0.15 g/24 h
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h 2.5-7.5 mmol/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg
Sodium, potassium, chloride, and uric acid Vary with intake/diet
Creatinine clearance M: 97-137 mL/min // F: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy):

  • 30 wks
  • 35 wks
  • 40 wks
6-18 mg/24 h9-28 mg/24 h13-42 mg/24 h 21-62 µmol/24 h31-97 µmol/24 h45-146 µmol/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids M:3.0-10.0 mg/24 hF: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h 8.2-27.6 µmol/24 h5.5-22.0 µmol/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total M:8-20 mg/24 hF: 6-15 mg/24 h 28-70 µmol/24 h21-52 µmol/24 h
Urinary dipstick test (mg/dL) Trace: 10-20 // 1+: 30  // 2+: 100 // 3+: 300 // 4+: 1,000-2,000
Cell count 0-5 cells/mm3 0-5 x 106/L
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L 118-132 mmol/L
Gamma globulin 3-12% total proteins 0.03-0.12
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL 2.2-3.9 mmol/L
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL < 0.40 g/L
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
BP Classification (Source: Seventh report of the JNC, 2003, American Heart Association)
SBP (mm Hg) DBP (mm Hg)
Normal <120 and <80
Prehypertension 120–139 or 80–89
Stage 1 Hypertension 140–159 or 90–99
Stage 2  Hypertension ≥160 or ≥100
Body Mass Index (BMI)  (kg/m2(Source: WHO)
Underweight: <18.5 // Normal: 18.5-24.99 // Overweight: 25-29.99 // Obese: ≥ 30 (BMI =  Weight (kg) / Height(m)2)
  • 1 m3 = 103 dm3 = 106 cc = 10mm3 (One cubic meter = One thousand cubic decimeter = One million cubic cm =  One billion cubic mm = one billion uL)
  • 1 L = 1,000 cc = 1,000,000 mm3 = 1,000,000 uL // 1 uL = 1 mm3

 By: Hijazeen, JK. Any feedback? 

Eight months after the closure of Are there any good alternatives for downloading free e-books?

In February 2012, the great book sharing website was closed after a court order issued by “The International Publishers Association and the German Publishers and Booksellers Association“. The question that immediately arised: Are there alternatives to

For months, I only knew three good websites. None of them, however, was as good as The one I liked the most was a website called the “BookFinder“. Today, I found a new website that seems to be a good candidate to be called the “Successor of”. This website impressed me by the number of books it contains. In addition, and more importantly, it impressed me by the fact that you do not have to wait before downloading any book; all downloads start automatically without even the need for typing a CAPTCHA.  Finally, it allows you to simultaneously download multiple  books . This great website is called LegalReads.

Concerning the other “not bad” websites, I personally recommend the Book Finder website. Through my experience during the past months, it was the best one of all others.

Compared with, there are certain problems with the BookFinder. Firstly, there is a download limitation in which you cannot download more than a specific number of books at a time (LegalReads allows multiple simultaneous downloads). Secondly, downloads takes longer time to start (LegalReads downloads virtually start in less than 10 seconds). Finally, and most troubling, sometimes, BookFinder used to give me a message that the book I wanted to download is “not available for downloading at the time being” and to “come back later“. Apart from these three minor disadvantages, my first impression is that both the BookFinder website and the LegalReads website contain the same number of e-books. Only further experimentation will reveal the difference.

There are other two alternatives. However, they are very unreliable. Nonetheless, maybe you can use them as a last resort if  you could not find the book you wanted in the above two websites:

1)  Library Genesis Project

2) Free Book Spot

Update 20/01/2013: is now closed. In my opinion, this leaves the BookFinder as the “Heir of”. After using it for more than 1.5 years, here is my review of it.

Below is a compilation of different books websites. I compiled them from different sources in addition to comments posted in my Blog. I feel indebted to thank “boral” who contributed a nice list of 10 popular websites. Please, like boral did, if you know about other “good” websites not mentioned in my list, then drop a comment!

Note: The websites followed by five red  starts (*****) are the best in my opinion.

Books websites: Absolutely the best. On top of the main page today (28.02.2014), the owners wrote that the website contains more than “2,221,712” books.

# The main page today (28.02.2014) says that the website has “2 284 324 books”. ***** *****  *****

#  ********** *****

# As the website’s URL clearly indicates, this website is dedicated mainly to magazines. After exploring this website, I found an E-Book section. What is interesting that this section contains the NYT and USA Today best seller books each compressed in a rar file. For example, here is a link to a page in the website containing links to “NewYork Times Best Sellers 19 January 2014 Non-Fiction“. Has a lot of magazine too. For epub books.

# This websites is specialized with languages-related books, audio books, videos, and softwares. This is an interesting website. I haven’t tested it yet but the design is excellent. This is a link to a page in the website linking to a torrent file containing 13.9 GB of books. They wrote, “We are taking the example of All-in-One torrent. This website is dedicated for novels. However, it is still new. I discovered this website on 28.2.2014 through an Ad on the top of the main page of The Ad was: “Our New Site Launched.

# In their own words, “ provides more than 2000 free scientific books“.

# The website’s main page says, “Stop paying for college and high school level text books, get them here for free”. *****


Magazines: ***** This website is specialzed with magazines. There are hundreds of magazines that are always updated. ***** It has books too.

# The website is mainly for books and this is a section for magzines.

# Audiobooks and books. You must be a user to surf the site.

Medical Books:

German Books and Magazines: This website is specialized with German books. *****

# The best website. It has almost the most famous books, videos, dictionaries, and software. ***** German magazines section of this specialized magazines website.

# This famous website is not dedicated to German books nor does  it mention that it has German books. However, I could find many German books in it.

Arabic books: Al-Jlees library (Maktabat Aljalees). The biggest arabic books website that I know of. *****

# This famous file sharing website apparently does not delted Arabic books that are uploaded to it. I always find Arabic books there.

Is there a safe drug? Is there a drug without any side effects?

According to what my professors at medical school taught me, and to what I had learnt through my so far sixth-year long journey in medicine, the answer is: No! There is no drug without side effects.

To make sure of this conclusion, I searched google for terms like “drugs without side effects”, “a drug without side effects”, “no side effects drug”… etc. The previous search terms didn’t lead me to a name of a drug or a group of drugs that do not have side effects. In fact, these terms did not lead me to a single webpage that addresses this issue.

Happily, I reached a WHO page that helped me to confidently remove any possible doubts that I had:

No drug is without risk and all medicines have side effects, some of which can be fatal.

Source: “Medicines: safety of medicines – adverse drug reactions”, Fact sheet N°293, Updated October 2008, 

About one month ago, I came up with a statement that reflects this very important fact. That statement came to me in an epiphany after at least a 30-minute-long talk of rebuke by Dr. Eiad Tamimee, a Pediatric Gastroenterology doctor of mine at Mu’tah University, on the importance of us on over medicating our patients. After all, rebuking others can sometimes bring the most out of students! This might be the case with me!

I came up with my statement after remembering a statement I know that stresses the importance of asking questions:

What is a stupid question? 

A stupid question is the question that you do not ask. Or as my doctor answered after my asking him this question, “there is no stupid question”.

My suggested statement to reflect that all drugs have side effects:

What is the drug that does not have any side effects?

The drug that does not have any side effects is the drug that you do not take!

Did anyone else come up with the same statement? Am I copying this statement and attributing it to myself? Well, here are google results for this statement:


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